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Education is the best hope for humanity and most effective way to achieve a better future. Early childhood development encompasses the first eight years of a person. The type of education provided at this stage determines the future of the individual in a wide range. It plays a crucial role in the development of children. According to Smith (2009), there are five domains of development: physical, motor, cognitive, language, social and emotional. It is best for trainers to perfectly understand and acquire the best practical skills to instill the knowledge.
Cognitive development refers to the process of growth and change intellectually and mentally such as reasoning, understanding and thinking. The young children try to draw on social, motor and language experiences for cognitive growth. They are accustomed to relate with features of objects, activities and the physical environment. Teachers, caregivers, parents and family members play a significant role in supporting cognitive growth of the young by offering a healthy environment for social and emotional nurture. A trainer might adopt the use of puzzle toys; this provides the student with the ability to think and know. The child develops the ability to organize and plan things. Cognitive development involves imagery, reasoning, language, and problem solving and memory sequence.
Social-emotional development: according to Cohen (2005) social development includes the individual’s experience, expression and management of relationships with others. It involves the ability of an infant to relate with others, make and maintain relationships. Games involving the use of mirrors, pretence active plays will offer the child skills to handle conflicts, differentiate between reality and fantasy. Children express their emotions through facial expressions, body language and vocals. The trainers have to understand the culture of the people of that society. Culture regulates social-emotional development for infants and adults.
Language development: language strongly predicts the success of an infant to learn and write. Children who are capable of communicating display best social skills. It involves the ability of a child to acquire skills to understand spoken words and also express one verbally. The trainer should use videos and books to instill linguistic skills to the child. The child should be able to identify and name basic objects. The infant must develop the receptive language; understand what others are saying; use known spoken language to express their needs, speak to communicate.
Motor development: involves the ability to make coordinated moves, the child has the ability to move muscles and draw sense images. The trainer should use paintings, drawing and cutting of sculptures. Arrangement of blocks will instill the pupil with patience, directions, balance and strength. Motor development includes two types, that is, gross and fine motor skills. Gross motor skills consist of large muscle coordination such as walking, running, and balancing. Fine motor skills include manipulation of smaller muscles such as drawing, writing, catching and throwing of objects.
Physical development: the pupil acquires skills to balance, move and direct. The pupil can play gross games such as football, walk up and down the stairs. The trainer adopts the use of safety balls and less risky games. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (2004), the ability of a child to direct the muscle strength involves physical development. Larger muscles tend to develop faster than the fine muscles. For instance, the young are able to walk before knowing how to write.
Teachers should create play environments, in which children feel safe taking risks, trying new behaviors and making creative attempts. This enhances motor development because children can try new movement skills, emotional development because they can build their self-esteem through increased abilities, cognitive development because they can problem solve to become successful at these skills.