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Action research is initiated for the purpose of solving problems. Therefore, this paper is a comparison research on the effects and conditions of different social actions. This interactive inquiry process provides a unique and systematic analysis on the development and history of planning through themes, techniques and principals that help in effective interpretations and analytical techniques in an emphasized social issue. The first step in conceptualizing and solving problems and analyzing issues is to interpret and determine the cause and effects of the same.
Literature is the art of written work. Literature is important to the social, economic, political and cultural aspects of both the historic and the recent times. Literature originated from different historic periods and was a reflection of the national and tribal cultures, accounts of customs and origins of the world, moral and spiritual messages among many others. In the historic times literature was focused primarily on agriculture, military science, poetry and philosophy among others. Many literature works from this period were based and focused on the biographies and history of medieval literature of miraculous chronicles’ and lives of the saints at that time. The literature was based on adventures, miraculous events, romance magical appeals, controversial, political, and religious issues. However, in the 18th century, which is known as the age of reason, speculations on human nature and history were integrated into literature and had an effect on the social and political developments of that period. The 19th century saw an introduction of the naturalism and realism in literature and the literature was based on real events and social trends.
Literature represents the culture, language and traditions of people. The importance of literature is derived from the fact that literature embraces historic and cultural artifacts. It not only introduced new world of experience but it also takes the reader through a literary journey through the books, essays, poetry and other written materials. The meaning of literature is brought out by what the author of a specific book says about the specific culture, tradition or group of people. The most outstanding quality in literature is the unique quality of works the affect and effect change and development in the world at large. It is necessary to note that the difficulty in literature is not to write many pages of nothing but to clearly express what you mean, what you feel, what you believe and what you attend for without fear, compromise or influence form other parties. Literature is beautiful, and it makes the world beautiful. The writer is, therefore, faced with the task of uncovering and discovering the beauty that is possessed in the work of literature. Even when literature is ugly, it is still beautiful in some ways. Any literature brings out a plot and a setting that will interest certain individuals and bring forth change. Literature is written or spoken material which broadly includes creative writing to scientific and technical writing. On the other hand, fiction is work of imagination or inventions.
Unique works of art or literature is an extremely wide topic. In order to fully understand the many different aspects in relation to literature, we must ask ourselves a number of questions; some of those questions are: what do writes say about literature? How has literature affected writers and other people interested in it? What exactly causes the writers and authors to attempt to make a difference in the world?
Elements of Literature
The elements of literature include: the character, the connotation, diction, figurative language, plot, point of view, rhythm, setting, structure, symbolism and tone.
Character in literature entails the representation of people, place, things, activity and functions in the work of fiction. On the other hand, connotation involves the aspects in literature works that change over time. These include: confidence and arrogance, caution and fear, curiosity and noise, frugality and cheapness. Dictions are the words that are used in literary work that emphasize the meaning and the theme of the work of literature. Figurative language is used in the literature to express meaning beyond the literal meaning of a situation or theme. Figurative language includes: metaphors, similes, hyperbole, personification and foot. The plot is the arrangement of ideas and the incidents that help to make up the story or the literary work. The plot should be amusing and attractive. It should have suspense, conflict, exposition, crisis, rising action and resolution among many others. Point of view is hoe of the story. Literature is therefore, a creation by the writer or author. Literature entails culture, history, beliefs, and norms among many other aspects that are related to people’s lives.
Action research is a problem solving action which helps in an interactive inquiry process. Action research collaborates with underlying research and causes which effect organizational changes and personal changes. It is necessary to note that action research is based on different theories. These theories include:
Chris Argyris' Action Science theory
This theory is an action science which studies and analyses the human being action according to their design in relation to difficult situations. In this case, people’s actions are governed by environmental variables. According to Argiris, these variables are designed actions, which govern the differences between double loop learning and single loop learning. It is necessary to note that these actions are designed to suppress conflicts and achieve intended consequences. In addition, this theory openly inquires possible transformations that govern variables. In this case, Argiris applies double loop learning and single loop learning in relation to organizational and personal behaviors.
John Heron and Peter Reason's Cooperative Inquiry theory
This theory is also known as the cooperative theory or collaborative inquiry, which was in 1971 by John Heron. Collaborative inquiry emphasizes active participations and includes co – researchers in the research decisions. The main purpose and idea of cooperative inquiry or collaborative inquiry is not to research on people but with people. Therefore, cooperative inquiry initiates different types of knowledge within a research cycle. The types of knowledge include; propositional knowing, which is also known as contemporary science, practical knowing which is also known as knowledge from actual proposals, experience knowing which is feedback from interactions from a wider world, and presentation knowing which is a rehearsal process.
In this case, the first phase is a method inquiry that determines primary proposition knowing as a method of inquiry (Burns 2007). The second stage is the first action phase which researches agreed actions within a group. It also observes actions and records observations from the original ideas. This stage is known as the primary experimental knowing phase.
Paulo Freire's Participatory Action Research (PAR)
This research theory is also known as the participatory action research. It is extremely essential method for change, development and intervention within groups and communities. The participatory action research theory focuses on critical pedagogy. It is commonly used as a traditional model of education where the teacher impacts the students with information while standing at the front. In this case, the students are passive recipients. Participatory research action is an experimental research which is recognized by researchers as a direct action practice with the goal of improving the community’s performance quality.(O'Brien, 2001; McNiff, 2002).
Participatory action research is a strategy that improves communication, collaborates and ensures hospital emergency efficiency. Therefore, direct participation is involved and monitoring and evaluation improved in an intensive research process. (Dick, 2002; Check land & Holwell, 1998; Hult & Lennung, 1980) According to Wordsworth, ‘’Essentially Participatory Action Research (PAR) is research which involves all relevant parties in actively examining together current action (which they experience as problematic) in order to change and improve it’’ (Wadsworth, Y. (1998) Wordsworth also insists that ‘’ Participatory action research is not just research, which is hoped that will be followed by action. It is an action which is researched, changed and re-researched, within the research process by participants. Nor is it simply an exotic variant of consultation. Instead, it aims to be active co-research, by and for those to be helped. Nor can it be used by one group of people to get another group of people to do what is thought best for them’’ (Wadsworth, Y. (1998).
Participatory action research attempts are carried out mostly by experts, governments and Universities. This action is used to identify key issues, initiate research, problems & concerns and other actions. It is also necessary to note that Participatory action research proceeds or starts through a recurrent cycle. This simply Participatory action research has its main roots from social psychology. It was forwarded as response information built on critical pedagogy. Paolo Freire asserts that "The silenced are not just incidental to the curiosity of the researcher but are the masters of inquiry into the underlying causes of the events in their world. In this context research becomes a means of moving them beyond silence into a quest to proclaim the world” (Escobar 1992).
Participatory action research has evolved tremendously over the years. In the recent times, participatory action research is applied in many fields for international development. This includes classroom action research which challenges, explores and reacts to the teachers and students needs. However, critics such as Peter Burger and Robert Chambers have asserted that the relationship between the researcher and the community affects power dynamics in the lower levels. The critics states that"However, much the rhetoric changes to participation, participatory research, community involvement and the like, at the end of the day there is still an outsider seeking to change things... who the outsider is may change but the relation is the same. A stronger person wants to change things for a person who is weaker. From this paternal trap, there is no complete escape" (Chambers 1983). Participatory action research is also criticized for lacking technical validity, credibility, accountability, reliability and transferability (Chambers, 1983).
William Torbert’s Developmental Action Inquiry theory
This theory is also known as the development action theory. It is a theory that conducts inquiry and action from a disciplined leadership action plan. In this case, it helps to increase the effectiveness of the planned actions. Therefore, organizations, teams and individuals can become more aware, more creative, more suitable and more just (Torbert, 2004). This simply means that development action inquiry challenges experience territories by promoting timeliness. The studies in this theory are externalized and internalized depending on the past and future (Torbet, 2004).
Jack Whitehead's Living Theory and Jean McNiff's Action Research
This theory is also known as the living education theory. This theory or approach generates explanations from an individual point of view and is based on how to improve the lives of individuals. Action research is simply learning by doing. It includes collaborative inquiry, contextual action research, action earning, participatory research and many other theories included above.
Perfect Action Research
To fully understand the meaning of a perfect action research, it is necessary to understand the objectivity and material phenomenon that offers a satisfactory explanation in relation to perfection. For example, a research on mathematical calculus and the law of gravity by popular and great mathematicians and scientists could not find complete perfection in their reasonings. This simply means that the great mathematicians and scientists used objectivity, material existence and cosmic occurrences to provide conscious research on the same. This also explains the Copenhagen interpretation mechanics in the year 1930 by Neil Bohr. In this particular case, satisfactory explanations on the wave of function collapse could not be reached. However, the scientist got more insight from latter research and developments. This simply means that there is no such thing as perfect research. However, perfect research can be attained and achieved only from particular static environments. In other words, perfection simply does not exist in the world.
The vital question is: if the action research and investigations have been perfect from the historic times to date then there is no need for improvements and developments of the same. This indeed proves that it is impossible to perform a perfect research. It is also necessary to note that as time changes, technology changes, as well. The new technologies come with new inventions and development of older inventions (Checkland, 1992). Charles Baggage, a mechanical engineer and English mathematician invented a very complex design of mechanical computers. As time progressed, his calculation on the same became limited. In this case, the machine needed a more advanced improvement and development. It is amusing to note that from the historical times to date, research has been and still is an endless procedure that changes with time, technology and other factors.
The aim of every discovery and investigation in an experiment is to interpret and discover facts. However, after practical applications the research and investigation process needs to be verified. In this case, the research is evaluated through comparison, advancement, appraisal, judgment, revision and review. Intellectual review and improvement of the research helps in learning contributions and improvement in the various fields. In this way, a systematic investigation or research inquires and establishes facts. Therefore, research is extremely significant part of every invention which is a necessary element. Research can be extensive or intensive in nature and deductive or inductive (Heron 1996). This simply means that the means and ends of every research is a trial and error method which is based on logics and practical problems. It is clear and goes without saying that no invention is perfect. This is because there are different agendas and motives in every research. The other main reason is because human beings are not perfect. In some cases, peer pressure, social acceptance, specific biases in a field of study and cultural restrictions influence the results of investigations and research. Some of the few examples of literature from action research are:-
Austin Freeman was born in the year 1862 and died in the year 1943. Freeman left a mark in the literary work from his writings, which stood out of the crowd. Freeman’s writing attracted a lot of attention from critics, philosophers, scholars and many other people who tried to analyze and explain his works. One of his first published books was the Adventures of Romney Pringle (1902). This book was remarkably successful, and it earned Freeman a name in the literary world. In his next book, he infused scientific methodologies, detecting forensic and other fascinating attributes that added a very interesting criminal and detective effect to the story in the book. In the book, the attitude of the character tends to bring out a conduct that justifies his suspicion. In this setting, there larks a certain strain of mischief. This particular setting in the book is a literary approach of practicality and realism. However, critics have criticized most of his works citing his use of realism approach. Other critics asserted that his works contributed to the rise of crime and criminal minds in that period. However, the literary world has appreciated the Freeman’s contribution of the criminal plots. His approach has been adopted, copied and used as references to the many criminal literature stories and books that have been written in the recent times.
Henry Fuller was born in 1857. His literature and books were based on travel romantics but later evolved into fiction depiction of life. In the book road side meetings, his mature character is brought out. His books are also a reflection of his knowledge and love for music and architecture. In his writings, Fuller used a realistic approach which was inspired by his own experiences. His temper helped to bring out a well and unique crafted satire and wit in his books. This gained him a name in the literary world. However, his other books were not as popular as the first books that he wrote. Many critics suggested that his inspiration had died with his mother. This was because after his mother’s death, his fame and the popularity of his books reduced significantly. His first books have, however, left a mark in the literary world that will be remembered for many decades to come.