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Christianity and Islam, two main world's religions, stipulate certain rights for both men and women. The definition of human rights as those rights which a human being possesses because he or she is a human being was used as a theoretical argument for denying that human rights may include collective rights. According to this view, women's rights can by definition belong only to individual human beings, even though such rights always have social implications. On the other hand, in defense of the view that human rights can also belong to collective entities, it was argued that the collective dimension of human life has to be taken into account when defining human rights. Not only freedom, but also solidarity should form a basis for the philosophy of women's rights.
Christianly and Islam
In the Middle East, Islam is one of the main unifying forces which help political leaders to create a strong political ideology and sustain a national of power ("Encyclopedia of Religion and Society", 2009). The orderliness of the Muslim community worldwide is upheld by the pillars of the hierarchical principle of religious difference, which operates through the many institutions of power in society and through the citation of Prophetic sayings as well. Foreigners and people belonging to other religions are included in or excluded from society because of, and based on, their religious values, while the material distinction of difference cannot be endorsed as a means to separate foreigners from the society, knowledge, religion and civilization (Ahmed, 2002).
The rise of political Islam during the last four decades can be explained by changing patterns of war and peace, consolidation of authoritarian rules in Arab countries, the revolutionary ideas in Iran, the relations with the USA and the Gulf War. All these events have led to consolidation of religious power and the rise of strong political Islam. What is labeled in the West "battered relationships" associated with fear, confusion, anxiety, attack, and domination, is a means of social control and the means to preserve families from the painful consequences of war. Thus, an indirect expression and self-denial to cope with abusive political relations is transformed into love and sacrifice for the sake of the nations. The religious experience transference is a universal phenomenon ( Bhabha, 2002).
In contrast to Islam, Christianity does not have a great impact on life of its citizens and social relations between men and women. The extent, to which Christianity has rooted itself into the public consciousness, is best illustrated by that fact Gregorian calendar has the birth of Jesus Christ for its starting point. This is the reason why people who study Greek and Roman antiquity, often get to experience a certain psychological discomfort, related to dealing with counter wise conception of time, which popular imagination associates with launches of missiles and tests of nuclear weapons. The knowledge of historical facts strengthen this impression even further whereas; people usually think of antiquity in terms of a continuous scientific and cultural progress, the millennia that followed the birth of a savior in year 0 is now being commonly regarded as Dark Ages (Ahmed, 2002).
Islam and Christianity stipulate certain roles for women and men accepting male dominance and female subjugation. In both religions, when a person gets acquainted with another culture, he or she brings his/her stereotypes and past experiences into this context making their judgments respectively. So, the Islamic leaders judge the world around them as Other and reject any civilized approaches to peace and social order. Then, the understanding of the existing inequality becomes dependent upon reality and cultural attributions. For instance, reality necessitates that education for is the first and foremost step to eradicate religious inequality. The equation is that the higher the educational status is, the narrower the gap becomes. In terms of methodological shortcomings, actual internalization of destiny as a learned behavior taught them to prefer early marriage over higher education for better employability skills (Cleveland, 2004)
The main difference between Islam and Christianity is that the former penetrates all spheres of life while the latter remains an independence institution inside a modern state. In contrast to Islam, Christianity accepts the idea of human rights. An gument for including collective rights in the definition of human rights was that human rights protect goods that are necessary for the maintenance of human dignity and that this includes certain collective goods. People have become increasingly aware of the fact that some major threats to human dignity are of a collective nature. Individual human rights no longer suffice, collective rights sometimes become a necessity (Ahmed, 2002).
Women's Equality to Men
The violation of women rights in the society has been an issue of concern for a long time. This problem has its roots from the manner in which girls are treated in their families. The society has allowed the violation of the girl child to take place within the home unpunished. In contrast a boy is brought up in a manner that he is allowed to do many things than a girl. In this way a girl is brought up to see herself as a lesser being than a boy. From this experience in the home setting, a man will never at any time regard women as equal to them. This is the reason why men always restrict women's freedom and do not honor their choices, and mainly their promotion up the ladder to a decision -making position. This is more pronounced in societies that still hold to the tradition way of living or totalian government that do not appreciate women as equal to their male partners. In these societies women continue to be treated as inferior sex. The societies generally take women as needing to be taken care by men or an older woman. Due to this conception women are denied the opportunity to learn so that they can make their own decisions. This treatment hence makes women to suffer from inferiority complex and therefore adhere to these opinions. For women, slam becomes a strong force which unites Arab countries and populations. It becomes a tool against western expansion in the region and proliferation of American ideas into Arab culture. In application, Arabs experience coercive attitudes imposed upon them by religion, but, nevertheless, no operant change takes place in their inherent attitudes. Political Islam is a response to the Cold war and cultural occupation of Arab lands by the West and the USA (Cleveland, 2004)
Fortunately enough, Christianity can longer be thought of as active religion, as opposed to what it is the case with Islam, for example. And, the reason for this is simple ever since early 16th century, the conceptual validity of Christianity has been progressively undermined by European philosophers, engineers, astronomers and even by these who were supposed to act as this religions guardians the professors of theology. Therefore, it is not by a coincidence that Western intellectuals refer to nineteenth and twentieth centuries as the golden age of science after having freed themselves out of Christian imprisonment, empirical sciences had received a powerful developmental boost, which lasted up until comparatively recent times. Despite the fact that nowadays, scientific Creationists are trying their best to reconcile the notions of biological evolution with the notions of religion, they will never be able to succeed with it, simply because evolutional theory explain different degrees of biological complexity among species as result of these species being subjected to the process of natural selection. In its turn, this implies the absence of creator, within a context of how living organisms came into being, in the first place. In other words, it is the fact that some species were able to take advantage of being continuously affected by spontaneous genetic alterations, which allowed them to ensure their biological survival (Cleveland, 2004)
Role of Women in society
Traditionally, women is Islam occupy a secondary role determined by social and cultural traditions in society. Thus, the status of women has been changed towards greater involvement of women in public and political affairs. The current studies of the role of women in Islam have resulted in a unified impression of the power of women leaders. Individually and through their organized activities, the women leaders of Islamic countries have become a dynamic social force, helping to transform the life of their lands. The growing power of women may be considered as representative of the remarkable forward movement of women in the entire East. Essentially the same currents of change--economic and technological, political and cultural--are transforming the life of the entire East. Women are vitally affected by the rapidly changing environment and are themselves playing a creative part along many lines in Eastern life (Chatty and Rabo, 2002).
Christian societies argue that women do not distinguish between good and evil or right and wrong and tumbles into any place at all. They argue that every one naturally loves status and closeness equally, but men seize status by force and women are just left with the drugs of closeness. They believe that women cannot achieve equal status without the help of anti-discrimination and sexual laws obliviously championed by men. Women naturally are not willing or able to compete on equal tasks with men. Women are not considered to be as competitive as man in all spheres. In most traditional societies women were regarded as part of wealth ("Encyclopedia of Religion and Society", 2009). They were required to reproduce, entertain their men and care for the children. They were supposed to rely totally on men. They were supposed to take orders and instructions from their husbands without questioning whether they suppressed them or not. Some of these vices have not been rooted out in our modern societies. In some societies women are not supposed to acquire formal education. They believe that a woman does not deserve any education or hold any administrative position, for professional responsibility is of only secondary importance to her ("Encyclopedia of Religion and Society", 2009).
These societies consider a learned independent career woman as an obstacle to successful family life. A successful career woman is described only in a negative light provoking hostility among traditionalist men. Such women are charged with immoral behavior and regarded as prostitutes. In such societies, family interest in a girl education and the growth of her personality, both spiritual and physical, is either lacking or insufficient. Girls at tender ages are taught on obedient, modesty and glooming to improve their physical attractiveness as a means of finding a husband. Women are denied chance to realize themselves as an independent being. To most societies, primitive traditions exhibit men as superior beings. They argue that men were created before women and women are supposed to be helpers. Men hold supreme authority over women. They are so disregarded that they are denied consumption of certain types of food regarded for men. They are usually confined in the kitchen. Young girls are usually educated on household matters during evenings by their grandmothers (Naseef and Umar. 1999).
Women's Role in Family
In Christian world, working and talking with many representative women make it clear that in the diversity of their activities there is a remarkable unity of purpose and sense of direction. They are confronted by the common needs and problems of the East and are working toward a common goal. Women are actively participating in many phases of civic welfare and in the varied collective efforts to build national life on a sound basis. They are concerned primarily with the specific needs of women and girls and are contributing their knowledge and special experience in all areas of life--the home and social welfare, business and professions, political life and public office--to the total advancement of women (Naseef and Umar. 1999).
Certain major trends of change and advance may be summed up in general terms applicable to all Islamic countries. Of essential interest are the common problems and needs and common lines of progress. It will be noted that some of the general statements may not be applicable to Afghanistan at the present stage of its advance. However, trends of progress in regard to women are unmistakable in all areas. The governments of these countries have made great progress in the education of girls, the basis for any advance of women, increasing on all levels the facilities for an enrollment of girls and women in primary, secondary, higher education and university education for professional training, on the basis of equality of access (Naseef and Umar. 1999).
For Muslim women, Jihad and the personality of bin Laden led to the war against the West. But the question that has been preponderating and involving all the great diplomats, Is Military Action, or Propaganda or Non-violent agitations are an act of terrorisms? Some may reply that obviously they are also act of terrorism as they involve massive killings, even of the innocent civilians by bombings, air raids etc. Pages from the history books are the reflection to the unprecedented causalities of the civilians in case of Military actions. These two actions, military and terrorisms are the two sides of the same coin, both involves killings and destructions whereby terrorists resort to the bombings and killings of the masses without any provocations. They mostly go by the illegal means, and are contrary to the established norms of law, whereas terror cause by military actions follows the law of the state (Naseef and Umar. 1999).
The military action is generally provoked by what is known as preventive war as Bombings over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the intervention by American in Iraq to counter the preemptive attack and to prevent any potential conflict in the future, Israel's attack on Lebanon to prevent any future offensives and rescue the kidnapping of two Israeli soldiers, Ethiopia's entry into Somalia to overthrow a weak government but wanted desperately to put an end to the growth of the Islamic Court and was initiated by the longstanding conflict with Eritrea (. But the assassin of U.S. President William McKinley was not termed to be an act of terrorism but an act of "propaganda of the deed" which was termed by Marxists, some anarchists, and other radicals. The advocators of the "propaganda of the deed" believed that their heroic action would give inspiration to the masses and will ultimately make anarchist ideas famous. They make the individuals their target but are against killing innocent bystanders. The processions, example of the propagandists are the radicals who wished to assassinate anybody but merely advocating their voice. (Naseef and Umar. 1999).
Islam and Christianity limit rights of women in society, family and politics. Thus, Islam dominates in all spheres of life and prevents women from personal growth and development. In contrast to Islam, Christianity does not have so great impact on social relations between men and women. The Qur'an perfected rights and political power. The political leaders challenged the Prophet's revelations but God's words were descended to abhor their dissensions. Today the Muslims profess Islam, but openly rebuff it when it calls for equality. Women in the Qur'an are better off than any woman in any society today. The category of religious difference also operates within Muslim society. Here, it serves to establish the biological and material differences. Christian women are more independent, self-centered and educated that Islamic ones.