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According to Cassese (1991) human rights are the those rights that are inherent to every human being regardless of their residence, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status. Every one is equally entitled to their human rights without any form of discrimination. There are many examples of universal human rights that include but not limited to: right to life, security and liberty; freedom from slavery or servitude; freedom from torture or cruel inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; freedom of residence, movement; freedom of thought, conscience or religion, freedom of peaceful assembly or association; right to health and education. These entire human rights are interrelated, indivisible and interdependent. In our current settings there are many societies/states that have continuously violated the rights of human beings exposing individuals to torture and denying them accessibility to basic needs. However, there are efforts around the world geared towards ensuring that human rights are improved.
Universal human rights are frequently guaranteed and expressed by law. They are often in form of customary international laws, treaties, other sources of international law and general principles. This has been the best approach that is being used by international community and the UN to ensure that states protect the rights of the citizens. The General Assembly proclaimed The Universal Declaration of Human Rights to serve as a common standard of achievement for every person and all nations (Montgomery, 1999). Through this Declaration, all member states shall endeavor to promote respect for rights and freedoms by both national and international measures through education and teaching. It is an effort that has helped many countries to observe human rights and protect their citizens from harm.
The millennium development goals is also one way that has helped improve and will further improve human rights on a global scale. Many countries, especially the third world countries are rising to the occasion to ensure that their citizens access basic services. For instance, the need to achieve universal free basic education has seen many countries initiate free primary education (Cassese, 1991). Access to healthcare has also been enhanced on a general scale. This is a positive approach towards ensuring that human rights are improved.
Presently, there is effective monitoring with human rights watchdogs, made up of NGOs and civil societies that are engaged in monitoring of human rights activities. This is due to the fact that without effective monitoring and evaluation, states can not be accountable for implementation of rights (Verschraegen, 2002). They too cannot be made liable if they violate rights. Therefore this is a tool that is being used to help improve human rights.
Taking into account the present rates of human rights violation as compared to the past, fewer cases are reported. Going by this trend it can therefore be concluded that human rights will continue to be improved being reinforced by international justice systems such as the International Criminal Court and the peace keeping initiatives.