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According to Foner (2011), the American social and economic history has been adversely affected by the lack of revolutionary freedom and policy framework from the early 1960s. He points out that Americans, through their civil rights organizations, have been on the picture condemning their government policies, especially those that negate the individual human rights. Foner (2010) points out that by taking advantage of their position to undermine the country’s political responsibility, various actions taken by a number of the past administrations have adversely affected the America’s economy.
The Purpose and Strategies of Johnson’s Great Society Programs
Rising (2010) noted that in the 1960s, most Americans were suffering from high poverty level, which was mainly contributed to political instability. He notes that the then government regime lead by President Lyndon Johnson established domestic programs that were intended to improve the living standards of Americans. Davies (2009) notes that the programs that were majorly distributed to the grassroots significantly helped in the reduction of poverty. Through the promotion of war against poverty, the program helped to elevate the Americas’ living standard. According to Davies (2008), the program also emphasized the individual’s role in the society.
According to Foner (2010), the Johnson’s Great Society programs lead to the even distribution of national resources to the society level. The programs specifically helped to address the basic societal needs like that of education and food through the Food Stamp program and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Foner (2010) specifically highlights the enactment of 1964 Manpower Development and Training Act, which saw the allocation of more funds for training in the rural areas.
Impact of Vietnam War on the American Culture
According to Lee (2011), the Vietnam War impacted both the political and the social culture of the American society. He points out that the U.S involvement in Vietnam War saw different Americans, irrespective of color, sex, or religion, uniting together in Washington to condemn the government involvement in the war. He, however, admits that the war led to the increase of various entertainment industries, which has since helped to boost the U.S. economy. Lee further observes that cultural and moral responsibilities of the Americans have been adversely influenced by various fictional films and television programs that have been produced to describe the Vietnam War.
On the other hand, the Vietnam War negatively affected the cultural diversity of the people of America, especially their moral conduct. According to Lee (2011), the victimization of the American soldiers who returned from the Vietnam War by the society negatively impacted their cultural and moral standards. He notes that this resulted in the increase of the use of addictive drugs like, for instance, heroine among the U.S service men that eventually affected the cultural and moral conduct. He further notes that not only did the Vietnam War affect the soldiers but it also affected the Americans’ perspective towards the war.
Sources and Significance of the Rights Revolution of the Late 1960s
According to Foner (2010), the rights revolutions that were evident in the United States during the late 1960s were mainly contributed to the political instability and racism. He points out that the concerted pressure from various well organized rights advocates was based on the dissatisfaction of the government services and its involvement in warring activities.
Wright (2006) points out that the economic difference based on racial influence contributed to the revolution of civil rights through the establishment of the 1964 Civil Rights Acts. He argued that during the 1960s, racism affected most of businesses, especially those belonging to the black or Latin Americans. Wright (2006) also observes that most of the customers were incited to boycott business premises that were owned by the black Americans, which, in turn, influenced the economic returns of the affected black Americans. He concludes that the revolution of Civil Rights in late 1960s not only advocated for the economic equity but for democracy as well.
Major Policies of the Nixon Administration on Social and Economic Issues
According to Foner (2010), Nixon in 1968 inherited a number of economic challenges from his predecessor Lyndon. He specifically points out that the Vietnam War had imposed economic decline due to its high expenditure, which, in turn, resulted in high inflation and increased unemployment. Nixon’s administration, therefore, came up with various monetary restraint policies.
According to Foner (2010), one of such policies was the New Federalism Initiative policy which was to help the Nixon’s administration’s to achieve its primary objective of reducing the size and influence of the federal government. He notes that Nixon’s administration faulted the Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs as the main contributor to the economy since the program promoted federal involvement with social problems. He points that the program had given too much responsibility to the federal government, which, in turn, affected its relenting procedures. Foner (2010) notes that the policy was intended to help devolve the portion of the federal powers to the local governments. He argued that to achieve such policy framework, the Nixon’s administration opted to give more financial freedom to the local government.
Another policy that was majorly concerned with the transformation of people’s welfare was the Family Assistance Plan Policy. Foner (2010) notes that through this policy, Nixon’s administration attempted to overhaul the welfare of social responsibility. The policy was meant to see every family of four receiving an annual basic federal payment of$1,600 with a substantive of earning of up to $4,000. The scheme would also see most of the unemployed take job trainings and accept any job offer made to them.
Causes of the Rise of Conservatism in the 1970s
According to Oshea (2007), the conservatism in the 1970s was primarily based on the freedom principality that influenced the human existence. He argues that the major concerns in the conservatism were the right for individuals to exercise their responsibilities and to be protected. Foner (2010) points out that most of the conservative protesters were mainly agitating for freedom of expression and existence, either at work or in the religion sector. Oshea (2007) points out that the need for freedom was further demonstrated when President Reagan adopted principles that would ensure freedom of expression during his campaign.
Effects of Regan Presidency on Americans
According to Foner (2010), the Regan presidency promoted economic improvement based on his economic revolution that was widely termed as Reaganomics. He notes that the economic policies helped to lift the economic standards of Americans as it reduced the people’s reliance on the government. He also notes that Reagan economic policies enabled the creation of more job opportunities that improved the economy. This, in turn, led to the rise of business activities both within and outside the U.S.
Foner (2010) point out that Reagan regime positively impacted the Americans who were trading abroad due to the realized economic stability. For example, he observed that most of the offshore businesses that were being contracted outside America found their way back due to the improved economy stability.
Major International Initiatives of the Clinton Administration after Cold War
According to Foner (2010), the Clinton administration played a key role in maintaining peace around the world as it helped to unite the countries that were continuing with the fight after the Cold War. He notes that the Clinton’s administration also helped in fostering peace accords between the Palestinians and Israelis in 1997 and 1999. Foner (2010) added that the Clinton’s administration helped to combat the terrorism acts by such actions like attacking Iraq’s Saddam Hussein when he defied the UN weapon inspections.
According to Foner (2010), the Clinton’s administration also initiated the signing of various international trade agreements that enhanced the political stability among various countries. Foner (2012) also points out that the Clinton administration promoted justices processes rising from political injustices when he made U.S a party of 1998 Rome Treaty, which was to establish an international criminal court.
Forces that Drove the Economic Resurgence of the 1990s
Jorgenson, Ho & Stiroh (2008) identify the advancement of information technology as the economic resurgence of the 1990s. They note that IT replaced the then weak productivity leading to increased labor productivity. Additionally, Jorgenson, Ho & Stiroh (2008) point out that the implementation of various economic policies by President Clinton’s administration also added to this economic growth. These were the Reaganomics policies that helped to create business awareness leading to the increased demand and supply.
Cultural Conflicts that Emerged in the 1990s
According to Chang (2008), the major source of conflict during this time was based on racism. He observes that the open racism led to civil war characterized by riots which saw different American groups themselves based on color and economic status. Chang (2008) also points out the Los Angeles riot of 1992 was the result of this form of discrimination.
In conclusion, the paper has highlighted the economic and cultural revolutions that have been evident in the U.S through a number of regimes. It has made it clear that wars can adversely affect the economic standards of any country. The paper has also indicated that a country’s economic growth can only be achieved through responsible leadership and good policy frameworks. However, for any meaningful economic and political growth to be realized, such vices as racism must be eliminated from the society.