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An affect is simply the emotions of a person; it is the feeling of human being that dictates how the person reacts toward various situations .The emotions are generally caused by either active or passive state of the mind caused by adequate and inadequate ideas respectively. These affects include love, pleasure, desires, pain, wonder and pity. Love is a strong feeling of liking; it is a pleasure strongly held by external cause; pleasure, on the other hand, is a transformation of a person from a small to greater perfection. Desires are the feelings of wants and are closely related to appetite. Pain is the transformation of a person from a high to low perfection, while wonder is the imagination that is in mind, particularly because the thing in mind has no connections with what we perceive, it is closely related to fear. Finally, pity is the feeling of pain at another person’s bad fortunes; it is closely related to sympathy. The opposite of love is hate, of pleasure is displeasure.
According to Spinoza, people are different in what they love or hate and even what makes them happy or sad. In addition, people have different desires according to what they like or hate. These consequently have lead to different use of the term good and bad. The fact that people use the term good and bad differently is enough to say that we cannot all be right. People have different views of things, and hence some ideas will make them happy, while others make them sad. When a person happens to know the power of his/her action, he/she is happy; this is because the person is able to fully utilize his potential and hence achieve the very best in life; however, failure to understand one’s power of action will always make the person sad. For example, when a potential artist fails to realize this potentiality, he/she will not utilize it and hence makes very little progress in life. Sometime success of others makes us sad, especially when we have not realized our potentials.
Joy is a pleasure, which comes hand in hand with an idea of something good that happens, which is something beyond our hope; desire is the want or appetite that a person have towards something, while sadness is the feeling of sorrow due to unfortunate happenings or passage to lower power of action. Joy is different from perfection, in that perfection is the power of action; that is feeling that you are better than others. Love is a pleasure linked with an idea of external cause and sometimes it lack clear distinction with treasure. Education changes our own attitude towards our own actions. It makes us think of better ways to improve ourselves and our situations. There can be also opposite of self love, because one cannot hate himself, though it is very possible to think less of ourselves than you deserve, and the opposite of pride can be self abatement. Bondage is the lack of power to control affects; it is a very serious affair, because it may hinder one from accomplishing life goals.