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Monopolar and bipolar depressions refer to mental illnesses characterized by disturbances in a one's mood, thought and behavior. They are what are referred to as affective disorders. Affective disorders are categorized into: depression, which brings about sadness, hopelessness and worthlessness in a victim; and mania, which is characterized by joy, elation and over activity. The difference between the two illnesses is that bipolar involves two distinct phases, namely a depressive and a manic phase, whereas Monopolar disorder has excessive periods of depression without a manic phase. Monopolar depression is also called unipolar; while bipolar I was formally known as manic depression (Douglass, 2009).
Electro surgery is the process of applying a high-frequency electric current to biological tissue in order to cut, coagulate, desiccate, or fulgurate tissue. Bipolar and Monopolar electro surgery is therefore vital as it is used to produce heat to achieve the desired tissue effect. However, only new generation bipolar generators, modes and instruments are recommended as they are safe and are an effective alternative to the Monopolar electro surgery. Recently introduced was a bipolar technology in the form of a revolutionary hemostasis product. Its working is by fusing the collagen in vessel walls to create a permanent seal on vessels as large as 7mm. It seals tissue bundles without even having to dissect the vessels. Also in place is a new bipolar vessel sealing generator that transmits energy to the vessel through a vessel sealing instrument (Loeffler & Flckling, 1999).
Diagnosis and treatment of these two illnesses continue to be looked into. However there are mood stabilization medications, especially for bipolar depression. Valproic acid, what is commonly known as Depakote is a drug approved by the FDA used in Mania Treatment. Its effectiveness is comparable to lithium. To get rid of seizures, therapy is prescribed at 10-15 mg/kg/day and increased by 5-10 mg/kg/day every week. Recently, an anticonvulsant by the name lamotrigine received approval from FDA as a maintenance medication for bipolar disorder. It is commonly known as Lamictal. Initial dose is 50 mg once daily for two weeks, then 100 mg daily in two divided doses for two weeks, after which the usual maintenance dose is 300 to 500 mg daily given in two divided doses.