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Check Out Our Language Disorder Essay

Introduction

Language disorders involve the inability to process the linguistic in sequence. The problem may include incorrect grammar, meaning, or sounds of words in the sentence. The examples that have been discussed in this essay include aphasia, dysanthria, orofacial myofunctional disorder, Stuttering, and phonological process disorder. Parents are encouraged to avoid bad reactions when a child stutters. Bad reaction may discourage a child, and may result to low self-esteem.

Discussion

The most common language disorder is the Childhood Aphasia. Normally speech starts with one having an intention to communicate. The brain forms an idea, which will be communicated. The words having a specific meaning are put in an order. The sounds of these words are also aligned. Syllables should however follow correct sequence for correct pronunciation of words, and hence correct communication. The lips and other parts of the mouth that are associated with communication must be highly coordinated. Brain is the master of coordination of these parts. The brain will cause reflex action in the muscles timely for correct pronunciation of words. Muscles, on the other hand, must have enough strength in order to perform this duty. The tone of the muscles must also be of excellent standard for it to have correct reflex that is essential for speech.  

Young children gauge their speeches by use of those of grownups. They try to speak exactly in the same way their mothers do. When they hear someone speaking, they keep the words in their brains. They store the order of syllables, the sound, and the meaning of the words in their brain. When they want to communicate, these words are accessed in the brain. There is less effort that is used in accessing this information. Children with aphasia have difficulty in storing, and accessing information in their brains. This kind of children will have difficulty in learning to speak. This type is called the development aphasia. It is present from childbirth. DAS is believed to be hereditary. Children who have this disorder have family members who were also affected by the same problem. However, the real cause of DAS is not yet known. Acquired aphasia affects adults. This aphasia may result from illness. Diseases like stroke, or head injury may damage parts of the brain that have control over the speech related areas.

Dysarthria is another type of speech disorder. Failure of the mouth muscles, face, or respiratory muscles to move may cause this problem. Dysarthria may affect both children, and adults. Diseases like stroke and cerebral palsy are the main causes of this disorder. Whispering or speaking softly is one symptoms of dysanthria. A person may also mumble a lot in speaking, or inability to speak at all. There is also abnormal rhythm is speaking, and too much breathiness. This disorder may also affect ability to chew, and swallow. It is often difficult to tell the difference of a dysanthria and aphasia.

Communication of the person affected by this disorder may be improved depending on the rate is has affected the person. Slowing the rate of speech is the mostly encouraged. Strengthening of the muscles to increase the movement of the jaw is another way of improving communication. Individuals who are mostly affected are encouraged to use equipment like computer or gestures to pass information. The listener and the speaker are both encouraged to strive to understand each other. A speaker may introduce the topic with one word before using complete sentences. Victims should speak slowly, and pause when they are tired. Background noises that may cause distraction should also be minimized to improve communication.

Another speech disorder is the orofacial myofunctional disorder (ODM). Tongue may have an exaggerated movement. It may move too fast or too slow, and this may bring a problem in speaking. Tongue swallowing is present in most babies, and may disappear completely as one grows up, or it may reduce. In some abnormal cases, a child continues tongue swallowing even at an older age. This will affect the child's way of speaking, and swallowing. This disorder may affect the child's self-esteem, and it is advisable for parents to take the child to the therapist for more training.

A child with this disorder does not pronounce the words correctly. They produce the sound incorrectly. Sounds like's' and 'z' are confused for 'sh' an 'zh'. The feeble tongue muscles cause this problem. When the facial muscles are stronger than the tongue muscles, individual may suffer from this disorder. Tongue may swallow due to the pressure that is imposed by the facial muscles. The difference in these muscles also affects the dental formula. If the tongue is frequently resting on the front teeth, these teeth are pushed forward. Regular exercising of the prescribed procedure may reduce this disorder. This exercise focuses majorly on the tongue, and facial resting posture. The parents or guardians need to work closely with the children to achieve the best results.

Articulation, and phonological process disorder is another example. Children make sound mistakes while speaking when they grow up. This is allowed until the children are past a certain age. When this disorder continues after a certain age, it is termed as a disorder. Correct sounds may be substituted by other sounds. The sounds may also be left off unproduced. Young children often confuse the sounds of 'w' and 'r'. However, there are substitutions that are not a disorder. An example of this are the Africans who often substitute'd' for 'th'. This is not an articulation disorder but rather, a phonological process. It is difficult to understand the people with this disorder.

The speech language pathologist may diagnose this disorder. A specialist listens to the child or uses an official articulation test to check the sound mistakes. The jaws, facial, and tongue muscles are checked to determine whether they are working properly. Accent is not a disorder, but a specialist may be conducted if one needs to reduce the accent. Speech improvement is possible for individuals with this disorder. The language pathologist may demonstrate how to pronounce the words correctly. The affected individuals may also learn the correct, and the incorrect sounds to help them reduce using the incorrect ones. Giving them the rules of speech may also be helpful.

Stuttering is another form is speech disorder. An individual with this disorder repeats the syllables or sounds in speaking. Repeated words may also be accompanied by lip trembling. The symptoms of this disorder are more pronounced when an individual is nervous. Talking to a large crowd of people may be impossible because of nervousness. Activities like singing reduce this problem. This disorder affects people of all ages. A great number of men stutter than women. It is normal for everyone to stutter at his or her early age in life. Speech is produced by the control of brain. Brain controls the movement of muscles that are related to sound formation. It also controls the formation of ideas, and the order of their production. There are three types of stuttering. Psychogenic stuttering is caused by the problems of proper reasoning. Emotional disturbance may also cause this problem. Developmental stuttering, on the other hand, mostly affects young children. It is believed to be hereditary, and it usually disappears as one grows up.  Neutrogena stuttering may appear after brain injury. The brain may lose control over the all components that are necessary in speaking. It might not be able to control the signals, and this result to stuttering.

Parents are encouraged to avoid bad reactions when a child stutters. Bad reaction may discourage a child, and may result to low self-esteem. Child should be encouraged to speak fluently by correcting them, and praising them when they say a word without stuttering. There are electronic devices that are used to reduce stuttering. The device is fitted in the ear like the earring aid. It repeats the words that are said by a stuttering individual to appear as they are in unison with those of other people.

Conclusion  

 Language disorders involve the inability to process the linguistic in sequence. The lips and other parts of the mouth that are associated with communication must be highly coordinated. Brain is the master of coordination of these parts. The brain will cause reflex action in the muscles timely for correct pronunciation of words. Muscles, on the other hand, must have enough strength in order to perform this duty. The tone of the muscles must also be of excellent standard for it to have correct reflex that is essential for speech. Communication of the person affected by language disorder may be improved depending on the rate is has affected the person. Slowing the rate of speech is the mostly encouraged. Strengthening of the muscles to increase the movement of the jaw is another way of improving communication. Individuals who are mostly affected are encouraged to use equipment like computer or gestures to pass information. Young children often confuse the sounds of 'w' and 'r'. However, there are substitutions that are not a disorder. An example of this are the Africans who often substitute'd' for 'th'. This is not an articulation disorder but rather, a phonological process. It is difficult to understand the people with this disorder. Parents are encouraged to avoid bad reactions when a child stutters. Bad reaction may discourage a child, and may result to low self-esteem. Child should be encouraged to speak fluently by correcting them, and praising them when they say a word without stuttering.

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