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Most process models of how advertising works are linear and posit that receivers of advertising messages move through several hierarchical stages traditionally described as Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action (AIDA); Awareness, Comprehension, Conviction, and Action (DAGMAR); or Knowledge, Liking, Preference, Conviction, and Purchase (Learn-Feel-Do). Attempts have been made to construct process models that are nonhierarchical in structure, yet no model has been proposed that accounts for the nonlinear, dynamic nature of the advertising process. Existing models assume a constant level and frequency of message delivery-rarely present in the advertising environment-and a linear progression from awareness toward an end-game of purchase or adoption, which is seldom an orderly one.
This research addresses web advertising placement issues by examining two main variables of marketing strategy and AIDA concept usage at www. eBay.com. eBay’s concept of business is as follows: website reputation and the relevance between website content and banner ad product category. Online data collection using adapted websites yielded different results for high- versus low-involvement products. Advertising effectiveness for a high-involvement product appears to be relevance-driven, with reputation enhancing outcomes only when the eBay’s content is relevant to the advertised product category. In contrast, advertising effectiveness for a low-involvement product is reputation-driven: when eBay’s reputation was well established, relevance exhibits no effect on outcomes.
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Results are consistent with Elaboration Likelihood Model predictions and the contention that variables can serve dual roles in the persuasion process, depending on the experimental context.
There are two important things about the eBay.com and its arrangement in this model. The first is that the AIDA stages do not repeat in exactly the same sequence. This means that exposure to the advertisement sometimes results in Attention, sometimes in Interest, sometimes in Desire, and so on, but not in a linear sequence. According to this model, it is not always reasonable to expect that Attention will progress to Interest, Interest to Desire, and so on.
This does not mean the process has been interrupted-only that the receiver will remain in the Attention stage for an indefinite period, until something (or a combination of things) causes him or her to move to another stage.
Thus, an advertiser who wants to create or modify behaviors over a long period of time-as Ebay.com is attempting to do with anti-drug advertising-must beg able to determine, which receivers are likely to be in which stage at any given time, must be able to measure advertising effects in all phases of the campaign, and, above all, must be willing to advertise consistently, within realistic reach and frequency parameters. Unfortunately, many advertisers are unable (or unwilling) to do any of these things and end up throwing money at a moving target they cannot define or see unlike Ebay.
com, which managed to implement AIDA concept successfully.
eBay creates standardized ways of presenting this data to its customers so that computers-and the people who use them-can communicate clearly. The orchestrator defines the schemas (common automated formats) that enable its business partners and customers to share information about themselves as well as purchase orders, shipping notices, invoices, forecasts, and credit authorizations. Much to the detriment of Covisint, the electronic marketplace for the auto industry, it neglected to establish standard ways of describing the thousands of types of parts found in the full range of automobile models that the marketplace serves.
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