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The four stages of strategic approach in management as discussed in block 5 include the following:
Stage 1 - Analyzing
Management has to be analyzed in order to have a clear insight on the needs of the organization. An organization may decide to adopt a certain style of management depending on their needs. The staff is an important component of any organization. This is so because; the nature of people who make up the management will play an important role in deciding the level of output. The manager has to give other members of the organization direction and act as a role model. Some of the roles of managers according to Fayol include: controlling, planning, organizing, coordinating as well as leading in making major decisions affecting the organization. This enables managers to articulate the set vision. Both the short and long term objectives are indentified as well as the demands of such goals. This vision has to be related to the organization and how it will be of benefit to the organization (Lucas & Hghes, 2007). The mission statement of the organization is also established. This helps in summarizing the purpose as well as the objectives that are to be accomplished. Setting the goal also gives an opportunity for both the staff and the external organization’s stakeholders to understand and hence contribute effectively to the achievement of the goal.
Stage 2 - Clear goals for the future
Goals to be achieved in the future are clearly stated. This involves development of a conceptual framework that will facilitate achievement of the goals in future. Goals have to be clearly stated and defined in words. This also entails planning, organizing, leading, coordination as well as controlling all the activities. In this stage, management has a crucial role to play. They have to develop interpersonal relationship between them and other members of the staff. For instance, management has to develop a strategy to figure the heads of various team works who will play leadership roles in various projects as well as make liaisons both internally and externally. They have to inform and disseminate required information where it is relevant to keep the staff updated of what they are required. Moreover, clarification of goals is important at this stage. Goals have to be specified, measured and agreed by all stakeholders. This will make the goals more realistic.
Henri Fayol, in his theory indentifies the major functions of management and its role in clarification of organizational goals (Lucas & Hghes, 2007). In his works, he states that management should incorporate the following elements in strategic approaches. This include: planning, commanding, coordination of work, controlling of all the activities as well as organizing all the work force and activities. Managers are obliged to follow these functions in order to meet the needs of their organizations. Strategic management aims at improvement of the organization. According to Fayol, effective planning is vital for the success of any organization. This will help in recruiting, evaluation as well as training the staff.
Stage 3 - Planning for how the goals will be achieved
Strategic to achieve the goals is well planned in this stage. Methods and the criteria that will be used to accomplish the set goals are established. Planning involves taking an action plan by the management. This involves designing and developing strategies for the goals to be achieved. Management has to set a given time framework within which the goals should be achieved. This also involves how the goals will be achieved and how. Thus, a plan for provision of the necessary resources is analyzed. Management plays this vital role that involves time allocation, making essential decisions as well as the use of resources (Lucas & Hghes, 2007). Resources such as finances, staff, relevant skills both communication and international are also indentified. In order to achieve the set goals more easily, tasks have to be delegated and controlled. Scientific management is one of the methods that may be used to manage workers and the tasks allocated. Taylor developed principles that are meant evaluate and facilitate the flow of work. The main purpose of this theory is to improve the effectiveness of labor productivity. In addition, the objective of the theory is to make work easier and lead to mass production. He argues that it is important to protect the social wellbeing of the workers. Workers form an important part of an organization. Motivation of workers is important. Therefore, through scientific management, it is possible to put in consideration all the affairs of the employees. On the same, scientific management enables the transfer of knowledge among the workers. Therefore, through scientific management, tasks are analyzed according to priority, urgency and important. This facilitates efficiency and effectiveness in management.
Stage 4 - Review and evaluation of process and changing conditions
The overall performance is analyzed, evaluated and the necessary changes made. Analyzing involves examining in detail the progress of the set goals. Through this process, management is able to indentify strengths, weakness, threats as well as opportunities that a given goal has faced or is likely to face. Thus, the entire project is reviewed. Evaluation in this stage is also another important task. Through evaluation, management is in a position to indentify the needs of the organization and what needs to be done in order to facilitate achievement of the goals. This helps in the implementation of the necessary changes to ensure that goals are achieved within the time framework. An organization is likely to be affected by both internal and external factors. Thus, it is vital to indentify and specify all the demands and constraints that are being faced by the manager in this stage. Through the reviewing process, the manager is able make the necessary changes such as adopt the best structure for the organization. For instance, the manager may decide to incorporate either classic or systems structure.