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Human rights are a broad term that comprise arrange of issues under its umbrella. These include right to free speech, right to political participation, rights to free and transparent judicial system among others. Respect of human rights is a key component of democracy. This is the reason why several regional and international bodies and agencies have been established to advocate for equality and human rights.
The United Nation was founded in 1945 by more than 50 countries in order to maintain international peace and security. Other objectives of the organization are to promote human rights, advance social progress and better living standards. Today the membership of the UN has grown to 192 member states. The organization has power to action on issues through the Security Council, General Assembly or a wide range of its committees. The organization has special programs that reach any corner of the world and offer assistance on issues such as human rights, promoting democracy and social and economic development. According to UN.org (Par 6) the UN has four main objectives. The first one is to keep international peace. The second one is to create friendly relations among nations. The third is to assist nations to work in unity in order reduce hunger, disease, illiteracy and poverty while encouraging respect for rights and freedoms of people. Finally, the forth is to be an organization that harmonizes actions of its member states in order to achieve these objectives.
The official signing of the charter of the UN was on 26 June 1945 and it became functional on 24 October the same year. Amendments to article 23 increased the number of members of the Security Council from 11 to 15. Procedural matters on Security Council are made by affirmative vote of at least nine member states (Radic, pp 45). This must include five votes of permanent members. In order for the UN to achieve its main objectives, it bases all its actions on a number of principles. These principles are contained in the second article of the UN Charter. They state that; the foundation of the organization shall respect the sovereign equality of all member states, in order for members to enjoy rights that accrue from membership; they should fulfill the responsibility assumed by them. The preamble of the charter reaffirm confidence in human rights , dignity of each individual, equal rights to both sexes in all corners of the globe. It creates conditions that promote respect for obligations that arise from treaties.
The international court of justice (ICJ) was established in 1945 and as the judicial organ of the UN. Its responsibility is to settle legal disputes and to provide legal advice to member states, authorized international bodies and the United Nations general assembly. The ICJ comprises of 60 lawyers working together to realize respect for international human rights principles all the way through the legal systems. The commissioners have great experience and are committed in ensuring human rights throughout the globe.
The adoption and proclamation of the universal declaration of human rights (UNDR) by the UN on 10 December 1948 arose from the knowledge and experience of Second World War. Every human being on the face of earth is entitled to equal rights. Thus, UNDR recognizes and promotes dignity and equal rights of all members of the human race. Inadequate regard to human rights results in barbarous actions; therefore creating need for organizations like UNDR are that are watchdogs of violation of these rights.
The Organization of American States (OAS) is a regional organization comprising of 35 member states. The main objectives of OAS are to achieve peace and justice in all member states, promoting representative democracy and to find solutions to economic and political problems. The organization advocates for human rights and justice throughout the Americas. The charter for the organization of American states was signed on 27 February 1967 at the third inters American conference. The OAS has no powers except those conferred to it by the charter. By signing the charter, the member states desired to achieve order, peace and justice throughout its member states, to promote collaboration, solidarity, sovereignty and territorial integrity. OAS operates as a regional agency within the United Nations.
The Inter-American Court of human rights works hand in hand with the Inter American Commission of human rights in protection of human rights. The organizations work together to enhance basic rights and freedom in the Americas. States voluntary submit to the Inter-American Court of human rights since it is competent in analyzing cases involving states.
The American declaration of the rights and duties of man is the world's oldest organization that advocates for human rights. Its adoption took place in April 1948 in Colombia.
The first chapter of the declaration outlines the political and civil rights of citizens of member states. Its preamble states that all men are born free and equal, and that they all have dignity and right (UN.org, par 4). Nature has endowed to them reason and conscience thus they should conduct themselves as brothers. The American convention on human rights also advocates for personal liberty, social justice and human rights. It emphasizes that regardless of ones geographical location, they have certain rights based upon their personality. Therefore, the organization reinforces protection of the rights as provided by the laws of U.S.
All the organizations mentioned above have one aim that is common to all of them. Apart from their other separate objectives, they all advocate for human rights. They advocate for the right to free speech, they promote the right to political participation, they advance rights to free and transparent judicial system and other rights that humanity deserve to enjoy . Apart from advocating for human rights, these organizations have other different objectives, which they promote.
Murder city narrates horrific events that take place in one of the world's most homicidal city. Ciudad Juarez lies crossways to the Rio Grande, Texas. This used to be a flourishing city but now is similar to a failed state. Just in one year, more than 2600 people were murdered. Death has been simplified. Many of them die because of involvement in the in trading in drugs. Military personnel and the police are also involved in this dirty business. When Vincente Fox is voted in as the president in the year 2000, he made changes, which escalated the menace. He came into office when the government was successfully controlling the drug business. He ended up losing the control of the country and the drug industry. When Felipe Calderon was voted in as the president in 2006, he ordered the army to crush the drug business. This is what caused the senseless killings. The Mexican military personnel cannot be entrusted with an operation that involves such amounts of money as there is in drugs industry. The money makes them leave the force one by one.
The belief held by the military officers in Mexico is that the drug industry pays better than the government; hence, they desert the army and join the wealthy drug cartels. The mass exodus of the military personnel coupled with the street killings has made Mexico to fall to the levels of a failed state. Mexico is no longer a civilized state as violence, death, and brutality has changed the face of the state (Radic, pp 142). No one respects the law leaving a large room for disorderly behavior. Nothing is moving on as expected. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which was developed to help reduce the problems, has in fact caused more problems than blessings. The agreement came into force in order to lessen illegal immigration but it did not. It only succeeded in wiping out peasant agriculture in the country. In Juarez, instead of the wages going up, they have reduced. Those who used to earn $ 4.50 now earn $ 3.70 on daily basis. The drug lords are now using trucks that were carrying goods to the U.S. to ferry drugs to America. This has not only caused so much suffering in Juarez but also poverty and death. The city of Juarez is collapsing under its own weight.
This is what takes place when a city collapses into violent behavior. People and events are interwoven in history relayed back and forth in the narration. A beauty queen is raped, a hit man repents, one killing after another causing a journalist to flee for his life .A drug cartel is involved in war and organized crime end up taking lives of drug dealers and of those, it finds in its way. Drug lords kill innocent citizens and no action is taken against them. As usual, the law enforcers have colluded with the cartels and they promote the ongoing onslaught. Thus, the U.S. has trained and armed many of the thugs that frequently terrorize its citizens. The victims suffer and no justice is obtained since there are no arrests made on the to the several murders. The war on the streets has made honest work and free trade next to impossible since while on tries to work honestly, one can easily die in the crossfire. Violence is a day-to-day occurrence and forms part of the community. It exists within the com munity with no clear cause or motive. The press has been intimidated hence they remain ineffective. The author does not portray this as a sign of deterioration but rather suggests that this is the future. All things that are taking place on earth including depletion of resources, the rising costs of food, fuel and materials for production, violence against women, the shattering of various currencies are old hat here. They all involve a normalcy in the cross- cultural propensity. The book therefore advances the theory of human nature.
The Admissibility claim
Admissibility claim- subject to the rape of a beauty queen- Violation of human rights thus eligible for compensation.
The claim of Miss Hernandez roil (name changed for security reasons) concerning the physical and sexual abuse she endured in the streets of Juarez in 2005. I believe that this claim though submitted late is liable for consideration followed by compensation as stipulated in the articles of Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. My analysis is founded on the fact that Miss Hernandez is in the jurisdiction protected by the commission.
I also believe that this clam cannot be rejected because an individual claiming compensation for another presents it. This is because as stated in the clauses of the commission, all individual are equal and deserve to reap the benefits of their rights.
The details and facts concerning this particular claim have been given in details and they clearly fall within the docket of abuse of rights, which the commission fights suppress. They specifically relate the nature of the claim and throws light on the foundation upon which the claim is based on. I understand that if requirement, I may be called upon to amend the claim so vas to fulfill the other conditions which I may have by-passed. Of course if called upon to amend the claim, I will be at liberty to have more time to further research on this issue.
In case of amendments, the commission shall accept the additional facts, which may also be essential in proving whether to compensate Miss Hernandez. The changes may have the potential of transforming the original claim.