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In studying the causes of criminal behavior the researchers tried to understand the main causes of criminal behavior. A number of concepts were observed in unearthing the viability of some theories concerning the issue of criminal behavior. The term criminal is used in reference to those behaviors that are known to be sanctioned by the existing legal system. The psychopathy measures that involve the behavior of criminals have been extended from children to adults. Gail Anderson focuses on three aspects of criminal behavior, these are: hormones, diet, and brain chemistry. She also observes the issue of development and the factors that affect personal development, for instance: birth complications and genes.
She has gone further in employing the biological interaction theory.. She gave much emphasis to both genes and environment, which play a significant role in every behavior including crime. She tried to explain that numerous behaviors were predetermined by the genetics where environment played a big role. These biological concepts involve evolution through natural selection, genes, inheritance, and nurture-versus-nature debate. She also addressed the hormonal influence affecting behavior/ She described the influence of testosteron in criminal behavioure. However, there was an unclear factor concerning the effect of aggression as far as testosterone was concerned.
There is a widely used psychopathic measurement called the psychopathy checklist and the progeny. Invention of the PCL-R was the initial time in history when anybody who said ‘psychopath’ was describing a person with special mental disorders. Researches were extremely fast in determining these diagnostic factors useful in predicting criminal recidivism and violence. Predictive utility is not a substitute to construct validity. Many scientists are against the idea of an integral role of psychopathy in a development of a persistent and problematic pattern in personal behavior. Antisocial behavior is regarded as central, significant, and critical to psychopathy. Scientists regard criminal behavior as epiphenomenon that could never be regarded as specific personal deviation or diagnosted as psychopathy.
The PCL-R describes antisocial behavior as a strong emotional detachment with some issues of psychopathy. a person with no criminal behavior or violence history who seems to have a trait of psychopathy may not surpass the threshold score of PCL-R for diagnosing psychopathy. The employment of PCL measures has made advancement in the understanding of this field, where implications and nature of psychopathy over a quarter century ago (Hart et al., 1995).
In order to understand the current field confusion concerning the viability of criminal behavior with psychopathic components, it is of utmost importance to acquire fundamental understanding of the contemporary debate involving the PCL-R structure. Currently, the analysis of PCL-R has helped in the development of three psychopathy models. One of these factors-models reflects the affective, and interpersonal cause of psychopathy, it could also be referred as the callous, selfish, and remorseless usage of others. The second factor emphasizes on the number of behaviors regarded as socially deviant. This could also be termed as chronicle antisocial and unstable way of living. The PCL-R model was based on psychopathy theories excludes some items in previous researches on antisocial behavior. An older classification was not accurate enaugh; it describes a relatively poor stability in different age groups, and varied cultures. The criminal behavior observed in early personal development includes such crimes as theft, violence, and arson. On the other hand, the main items described in the PCL-R part on antisocialism directly point on criminal behavior that emerges during adolescence and adulthood. The criminal acts at these periods involve: juvenile delinquency, criminal versatility and conditional release revocation. It is important to note that some antisocial characters are inherent to the affective and interpersonal cause of psychopathy.
There is a relationship between behavior and personality. It should be understood that a person may shift from behavioral acts to disposition related to personality through the means of inference. The latent traits are inferred depending on behavioral cues that appear across contexts. The depositions or traits are usually defined by behavior irregularities. Therefore, it is true to say that, there is no clear difference between traits and habits. When searching for the existing distinction between antisocial and criminal behavior, several problems come up. Most of these factors revolve around criminal behavior. For instance, the count of those criminal acts that have been detected amounts to criminal versality. In some cases, a single criminal act is enough evidence of the trait, for instance, a serious criminal act results in juvenile delinquency. Again, recurring criminal acts could be used to assist in interpreting one’s predisposition towards criminal conduct, but a mere act is not equivalent to the trait (Bartol, 2010).
In conclusion, criminal behavior is very prevalent in today’s world. As researchers try to come up with evidence concerning the issue of this behavior, some facts remain to be theoretical since some findings were not logical. The PCL measures are imperfect in some aspects, this because it has been built with specific population for a given purpose. Some even go as far as infiltrating the information and sending unsolicited advertisements based on an individual’s browsing history. People with a genuine concern for internet privacy repeatedly name a number of risks met during the use of the internet. These issues can compromise users’ privacy. This compromise consists of gathering statistical data on users, facilitating the spread of spyware, and bugging software (Schafer, 2010). Most social networking sites provide measures against this unwarranted affront on users’ privacy. The greatest impediment to full utilization of these protection measures is ignorance. Most users have no idea how to go round installing these protective measures. Most computer users worldwide have limited knowledge of their computer settings. They therefore have no idea on how to run their own network security. Most find it an arduous task and resolve to hiring professionals to assist them, effectively increasing operation costs.
In conclusion, it is paramount for the issue of internet privacy to be handled expeditiously. In as much as internet users yearn for more privacy, it is important to remember that many other users continue to suffer at the hands of fraudsters. Vulnerable children and other ignorant people continue to lose out at the hands of internet conmen who hide behind secrecy laws. However, it is also vital that honest users of the internet be protected from unnecessary disclosure of private information. Companies that spy on internet users should be held accountable, and ne made to compensate. Posting of any libelous material on the internet should be criminalized, and those found contravening this law punished severely. However, if all internet users were civil enough to observe the rules and regulations governing its use, there would be little need for monitoring and spying on people.