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The articles of confederation have been cited as the pioneer governance structure of the USA.The development of these articles was necessitated by the dread of an all powerful central administration (Bardes et al, 2010).These articles envisaged an alliance of free states with few consented upon limitations but still having overall administrative authority.. The articles had several shortcomings as discussed below.

In spite of congress having the power to pronounce war and initiate external policy, it lacked the power to collect proceeds from the states. This essentially meant that the operation of the government depended on the benevolence of the member states.  Furthermore the operations of congress required approval from all the states. This meant that any alteration of the articles had to be agreed upon and confirmed by every state, often resulting in delays (Bardes et al, 2010).

The greatest undoing of these articles, which according toBardes et al, (2010) was the underlying reason of their substitution with the constitution was the inability to procure finances for the military. These articles did not explicitly confer congress the authority to generate income by means such as taxation so as to maintain the military. These articles also failed to regulate trade between the various states with each state left to have its own taxation scheme.

The entrenchment of the constitution brought a myriad of changes to both the structure and operation of the national government. The constitution provided for a republican regime whereby citizens would elect persons who would in turn make decisions on their behalf. The constitution also envisaged a government restricted by written legislations. The adopted constitution provided for the division of power with suitable regulatory mechanisms to prevent abuse as well as establishing a federal system that permitted state freedoms.

The constitution according to Farrar (1897), guarantees one the right to enjoy all the civil liberties and privileges of a citizen in all of the USA.This essentially means that a citizen is allowed to enjoy all the benefits accorded to him or her by the constitution in any part of the United States without any discrimination whatsoever. The constitution also gives the citizens power to legislate through their elected representatives at all levels of government illustrating that ultimate power rests on the people of the United States. The constitution is the embodiment of the independence of the American people.

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