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Question 1: Types of Evidences

Direct evidence; is meant to prove a case before the courts without drawing an assertive conclusion. A witness testifies straight before a court. Witness does not directly testify before a court of law.

Circumstantial Evidence

Circumstantial Evidence; requires that a jury, based on presented evidences, draws a conclusion from the given evidences.

Question 2: Types of Fallacies

Formal fallacy; it bears errors in its order of arrangement, structure and argumentative sequence. As such, drawn conclusion is based on either correct or incorrect form. Correctness of an argument determines its validity.

Examples of Formal Fallacies

True and valid; all mankind are mortal, President Obama is a man; therefore, President Obama is mortal.

Informal Fallacies; characterized by unclear expressions. Informal fallacies mainly lay focus on the language meaning of an argument. In essence, informal fallacies concentrates on bad use of language used based on the logical structure of a language in use.

Example of Informal Fallacy

Language power makes one to argue, mankind argues too excessively; therefore, we don't have to teach language power. From the example, the context to which the word argue is used varies ad may bring disagreement in a logical argument between two persons or group of people.  

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Logical fallacies occur when an argument contains inferences, premises and conclusions. Inferences may not support be supported by available premises; thus conclusion reached may be compromised. Suppose there is an error of reasoning, then such an argument may not amount to a fallacy leading to relevance, ambiguity, or presumptive fallacies examples of fallacies.

Question 3: Types of Causes

Political causes

Political leadership in any given nation determines how emerging issues are addressed at the national and international levels. An example of political cause is whether the United States can enter into UN call to address consequences of climate change from Green House Gas emission.

Environmental Cause

Environmental cause seeks to address concerns of environmental degradation. Environmental causes are significant given the state of the universe resulting from human activities in development. An example of environment cause is the recent Toyota car model referred to as the green car does not green house gases into the atmosphere.

Corporate Social Responsibility

This is a cause taken by corporate business leaders to initiate community based programs that are of benefit to society. It is like a give back policy because a firm exists because of a society and vise versa.  An example of CSR is reforestation initiative taken by a given firm within a given community.

Question 4: Functional Fixity and Set

Functional fixity is type of notion in a psychological set. Set refers to a quick response given by an individual to a given stimulus as a show of readiness.

Example of functional fixity is use of a hummer to drive nail in wood unlike for a less weight material.

Example of set; a person blocking his/her face from a thrown kick from another person

Question 5: Truth and Validity

Truth is an ultimate authenticity of an argument whereas validity is what can be accepted from a true argument.

Types of Syllogisms

Hypothetical; suppose abortion is legal in America, health practitioners will think it is legal to commit euthanasia and this will mean that special people like the sick, elderly will be unsafe leading to protests again.

Disjunctive; if a given disjunct is untrue then one would suggest that the other must be true for instance if a ball is either in box A or be and box A is empty them one can infer that it is in box B.

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