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Concepts of justice involve moral righteousness, which is bases on rationality, laws, religion, ethics, religion, fairness that comes with the punishments associated with breaching of these laws. Justice in social institutions is considered the first virtue, just as the truth is of the systems of thought. It is thought to be different from and fundamental of other virtues. Justice has long been associated with concepts such as fate, divine providence and reincarnation. It can be defined as the division of labor in a political state according to fitness. From this view, justice is used in maintaining a social equilibrium between two societies and obtaining a rational coordination, which is achieved by assigning each class of people relevant tasks and creating a clear cut to avoid trespass on the duties of others from other classes. Plato Republic presented an acceptance which is still considered up to now. Plato views justice as equilibrial, abstract and politically safe.
There are different variations of justice such as utilitarianism, retributive justice, restorative justice, distributive justice and oppressive law exercises. Justice is directed towards guiding our senses beyond what is right and this is what governs a society or a community. The understanding of justice is not the same in communities and cultures. Different cultures are dependent on religion and the ethics that govern a community. Even though there can be found some principles that are similar among communities, these principles are not sufficient to unite the communities.
Justice is considered as a harmonizing virtue. Justice can be defined as a harmonious relationship between persons or states. A just man is a man at the right place who is doing the best and gives approximate equivalent of what he has been given. Harmony is the agreement in feelings or opinions, and it is important in resisting forces of division amongst people.
Justice is a divine command, and as a law, it is authoritative. Devine command is the view about the meanings of ethical sentences which supports the truth about the ways of God. Divine command theory opposes other moral realism. Murder is wrong and in that case has to be punishable. The famous euthypro dilemma seeks to know if something is considered right. Because it is Gods command or if it is right because of the fact that it is right that is when God commands it. Considering these two approaches, justice can be termed as arbitrary or in terms of morality; if morality comes first before God. Devine command acknowledges God as just and that all the goodness is the very nature of God (Kirk, 2003).
Justice is a condition of psyche, which can be termed volitional or emotional. Plato made the initial contribution by stating that justice is in a persons psyche whenever reason maintains an equilibrium justice involves both reason and harmony. Aristotle suggested that justice might be an internal condition which projects directly towards the outside world and the ultimate objective behavior of individuals.
Justice can be defined as conformity with the law. Immanuel Kant suggested that whatever that conforms with the laws that governs a community y or state is termed as just and whatever that violates these laws is referred to as unjust. The process of fixing the standards of justice according to a constitution, treaty judicial norms are administrative regulation can be referred to as textual acceptation. When you obey the commands from authority you do just. Textual acceptation is normally not considered as very important but in modern democratic society, the overwhelming moral wrongs and all injustices inflicted by officials on persons are legally wrong and they violate legal texts.
Justice can be defined as a natural law. For advocates of this theory such as John Locke, it involves the system of consequences that are naturally derived from any action or any choices of an individual. This law is similar to the law of physics. Newton's third law of motion states that for every action, there is always an opposing reaction. In this way justice demands that in accordance to individuals or groups of people, they should receive or get what they deserve, as a consequence of their deeds. On this account justice is referred to as the universal and the absolute concept of religion laws and principles.
Looking at justice and human creation, justice maybe conceptualized as human creation. Justice can be defined as the creation of some of the humans. It can also be argued as the creation of all the humans. This claim varies from one individual to another (Cahn, 2004).
In addition, justice can be defined as the authoritative command. According to philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, justice is a creation of the public and it can be enforced and can be regarded as authoritative rules. These rules should be observed. Injustice is described as the actions that are forbidden by these rules. Breaking of the rules is referred to as injustice regardless of their relationship to morality. Justice is not simply described or approximated but it is created by the commands of a sovereign power. Authoritative commands have some similarities with the divine commands, the difference being that the former is implemented by the state while the latter is by God.
According to John Stuart Mill, a utilitarian thinker justice is as fundamental as it is always thought to be. Rather justice is derived from the basic understanding of righteousness and what is right and has excellent consequences. It is measured by the total or the average welfare that results from it. Proper principles of justice are those that are leaned towards achieving the best consequences. The rules of justice are familiar for example keeping contracts but on the other hand may not be considering facts on real consequences. Mills explains that our mistaken believe on our desire to revenge against those who harm us. Sometimes when someone is hurt it is in our human emotions to feel like revenging on behalf of the person that is harmed. We tend to put ourselves in their shoes. If this is used to seek the process of justice based on feelings and emotions, it undermines the confidence that is accorded to justice (Adams, 2002).
Justice in crime can be defined as the system of practices and the institution that govern and directs social controls and mitigation of crime. It also involves sanctioning those who break the laws, penalties and rehabilitation.
Looking the theories of justice, distributive justice theorists do not answer questions on who has the mandate to enforce a law or justice. On the other hand, property rights theorists argues that there is no distribution that is favored , and that the distribution is simply based on distribution results achieved through interactions or as a result of transactions that are not based upon fraud or force.
According to egalitarianism, justice exists only inside the bracket of equality. This is with regard to the goods to be distributes such as wealth, respect and opportunities among individuals or groups of people. Commonly held positions include the demands for equality in opportunity and income. It states that without justice, freedom and equality are hollow. Justice involves giving people what they deserve. Fairness is a form of justice.
In conclusion, in the world, people are interconnected but they have disagreements. Relevant institutions are supposed to instantiate the ideologies of justices. Some institutions of justice maybe unjust when compared with ideal standards: considering institution of slavery. Justice is regarded as an ideal situation which the world fails to live by it .it can also be regarded as an independent investigation of truth.