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In every society, there exists a body that regulates justice and maintains social control. This body does not only deal with determination of guilt, but also focuses on the rehabilitation of the guilty. The responsibility of the justice control fully affects the administration and management processes in that particular society. Each and every member of the society behaves according to the rules and standards that this department puts in place. Every society seeks to have the best justice administration. It ensures that all the members of the society receive equal treatment, free from bias or favoritism. The bodies that are already in place in different societies to regulate justice undergo different changes and reforms, in order to work effectively. This in turn further affects the overall administration and management in the society. This essay seeks to establish the relationship of justice administration and management. It also shows the main effects of the Justice Department in the USA after different situations. The choices made by the Justice Departments have different effects on different people, mostly because of their diversity in religion, culture and social backgrounds. The management of the Justice Department also influences the justice regulation process greatly.
The Justice Department in the USA
The body responsible for the administration of justice in USA is the Department of Justice. The Justice Department is responsible for the enforcement of the law. It is also responsible for the administration of justice in the country. The Justice Department is headed by the Attorney General. The Department of Justice has undergone many changes and reforms with time. The main aim of the Criminal Justice Department is rehabilitation, mitigation of crime, sanctioning individuals with criminal penalties, deterring crimes and upholding social control in the society. It is the most important part of the Justice Department. The criminal justice department is the most common type of justice administration in modern days. The citizens of the country strongly believe that the Department of Justice is there to prevent them from both the foreign and internal exploitations. The Federal Government plays a key role in the justice administration. The Department of Justice is a branch of the Federal government and therefore, has the powers from the people. The citizens observe closely the administration of justice. They would all want to feel an optimum protection by the law (Bessette, 1996). The management of the Justice administration also undergoes scrutiny by almost all parties, including civil rights groups and religious leaders. This does not mean that it is inefficient. The Department of Justice observes and respects positive criticism. Therefore, they have put in place measures to listen to every citizen. This department is also extra careful to prevent citizens from misusing their rights.
Major principles of the Justice Department are transparency and equality. They must also display the highest level of integrity. The driving force of a country is the fair and impartial administration, with equality of all citizens regardless of their differences. The administration of justice in the country has changed tremendously since the September 11 terrorist attacks. The administration’s changes have also brought about changes in the country’s management at different levels. The administration power in the country is the key determinant of the justice administration that is in the country. Therefore, the election of new leaders also determines changes in the justice administration. The Department of Justice provides different strategies to curb social injustices. It has criminal law enforcement agencies and police departments. It is also involved in management of cities, courts, and administration and rehabilitation facilities. The safety of the citizens is the first agenda in all its endeavors. Therefore, the department has put in place different policies regarding different crime. For instance, the punishment for murder and terrorism is death. On the other hand, petty criminals get community service and counseling services. From a moral point of view, justice is the central part of consideration in people’s lives. There is a psychological importance in the recognition of justice. Recognition of justice makes individuals feel a sense of respect for themselves and others. The individual also understands human dignity and in turn avoids crimes and upholds social welfare. The Department of Justice recognizes this fact. Therefore, it becomes easier to manage a society that upholds justice.
The department of justice has had several achievements in the last decade. Since 2001, there have been numerous changes in the justice administration and policy formulation to ensure the safety of the citizens. The budget of enforcement agencies such as the FBI has doubled since the financial year beginning in the year 2002. The department has also invested in gathering local intelligence and surveillance (Cole, 1999). The Department of Justice has also conducted reforms in the Justice Management division to curb wastage of resources and misuse of public funds. The Department of Justice has also gone a long way in curbing violent crimes. There have also been great strides in creating safe neighborhoods, free from crimes such as drug abuse, child abuse and robbery. All these achievements in justice administration are crucial in general management in the society. There is easier management of resources by the government, both the natural and artificial ones. It is also more efficient for investors to manage their firms and continue with economic growth. With a safe environment, it is also easier for service providers and welfare institutions to manage their activities. However, there have been different views concerning justice administration in the country. There have been several contentious issues in justice administration that different groups in the society have given different views (Kerlikowske, 2012).
Different Approaches to Justice Administration
The idea of justice administration started with the beginning of civilization. The early understanding of justice was simply in matters of fairness, judging from one’s thought what to do and what one deserves. The idea of fairness was also a situation where similar situations called for different treatment, considering the psychological and social positions of the parties. Today, however, there already exists a general understanding of justice and its administration. The treatment of different individual is general, without necessarily considering the social status. Earlier, lack of a general understanding and administration of justice would cause chaos and mismanagement in the society. This is explained by the fact that there were people with liberal and conservative views on the same issues. To enable the proper administration of justice, the current Justice Department uses one principle: treating equal equally and unequal unequally. This principle means that every individual who does not have special traits should be treated equally. It gives an exception to people with special traits such as the mentally challenged (Cunningham, 2001). This, however, does not include people with other disabilities, marginalized groups or other races. The minors who commit crimes receive special treatment from the adults, due to their age. There is almost no American citizen who has a completely different approach to all policies and laws in the Justice Administration Department. Different groups only differ in different issues. The freedom of expression goes a long way in managing the airing of different contentions and arguments.
Despite the harmonization of justice, different cultures and religions still maintain different approaches to justice. Christians, for example, view it as a personal responsibility to maintain social justice. They maintain that they should be in the forefront in fighting for justice since it is an obligation in the Bible. The Christians also consider that they should respect the actions by the state to regulate and administrate social justice. These actions by the state, however, must be in line with the Christian norms and teachings. For instance, Christians are strongly against the capital punishment. They believe strongly in the power of forgiveness, and that every human being should have a second chance to repent and turn to God. The Christians also agree that they should be selfless in wealth distribution. They believe that every resource should be shared among members of the society. Therefore, they are engaged in welfare acts voluntarily to help the needy. The Christians in the United States do not have a direct influence in matters of state. However, they are always trying to influence certain legislatures. Every citizen has a right for expression, regardless of race or religion. They participate in lawful demonstrations, serve in government and form public interest groups. Christians also believe that people should not judge others falsely. They use the principle of deontology, whereby an act is either right or wrong (Katzenbach, 1967).
Some of the other groups which have different approaches to justice administration are the civil rights activists. The main interests of these groups are the human rights of the citizens. They do not always advocate for the marginalized groups, the minorities and those with special needs. A good example of a civil rights group is those who advocate for gay rights. They insist that homosexuality should be allowed, and the society should recognize them as normal individuals. These groups are protected by the Justice Department allowing them to air their views freely. This creates a manageable society. The civil right groups also oppose some of the wrongs that the Justice Department may commit affecting a special individual. For example, these groups advocate for just treatment of foreign criminals, who would otherwise suffer neglect due to their origin. These groups also observe the Department of Justice for fair trials and integrity (Langeluttig, 1927). These groups also express their views peacefully, enhancing management in the society and peaceful coexistence. Hence, different approaches to justice administration can cause conflicts. Some may view the Christian values as conservative, or otherwise. The Justice Department, however, is quick to manage all these groups and create harmony (U.S.Department of Justice National Drug Intelligence Center, 2011).
Effective Justice Administration to Enhance Management
Following the September 11 attacks, the Department of Justice underwent massive reforms to ensure proper community management and the welfare of citizens. These reforms were not only in the department’s management, but also in the policy formulation. There have been several changes in effect to ensure preparedness, disaster management, curbing of crimes and gathering intelligence. The Department of Justice has established a new division to protect consumers from exploitation by suppliers and manufacturers. There were many companies which used to set prices at higher rates for certain consumers. This caused market chaos, with the worst experience being the global economic recession. The Antitrust Division ensures that consumers pay the right prices for commodities. It also ensures that the quality of commodities getting to consumers is good. The products also undergo testing to ensure that they are not harmful to the people. The Federal Drug Agency tests all drugs that are sold by pharmaceutical companies to ensure that they do not have side-effects for the users. This shows that the Justice Department went an extra mile in ensuring that consumers are safe. The Antitrust Division has continued to show regulate the prices of commodities, creating a well-managed market, where both consumers and sellers benefit (Ross & Gould, 2006).
The Criminal justice Organization has also displayed great strides in the last decade to create order in the society. The reluctance of the Criminal Justice Division can cause chaos and mismanagement in the society. The main changes in the criminal justice system has been on national security and monitoring of the borders, internet and airports. The local surveillance has also improved, and even the local police departments are more vigilant and prepared. The department has also increased the number of workers and advanced technology in emergency response. The main concern was that with the Congress having passed the Patriot Act in 2004, there would be a chance for government snooping. The criminal division, however, has tried to explain and create awareness to the citizens about the importance of internet surveillance. Many civil rights groups complained that the federal government does not respect their privacy rights by implementing this law (Grindler, 2010). However, the cyberspace and telecommunication are the main communication channels of criminals. The Criminal Department is hence trying to explain the need to interfere with private communication for the welfare of the citizens.
The Department of justice is involved in different kinds of justice with the aim of fostering national peace and coexistence. Distributive justice ensures that there is an equitable distribution of the national resources all over the country by condemning slavery and supervising the budgetary allocations by the political leaders. The department also ensures proper use of power by the leaders. The Court and Correctional departments are responsible retributive justice. They ensure that criminals are punished for their wrongs and that people are not judged falsely. The Court system is also responsible for compensatory justice. This is mostly applicable in the civil cases. The parties who cause harm or injury compensate the other party, in a proportion of the loss (Fleder, 2012). This brings about equal dignity, interdependence and social stability. The remedies for social instability are disturbances, strife and social unrest. The violation of human dignity brings about disrespect and social instability. Justice brings about harmony, which in turn brings about peace. This peace is crucial in creating management in the society.
However, it is extremely impossible to give each and every person what they deserve. With an efficient and well-managed justice system, it is possible to have a near-to- perfect society. With justice, management of economic resources is more efficient. The management of other social and political situations also becomes simple. The policy of the Justice Department to allow each and every citizen the right to expression goes a long way in the management of the flow of information in the society. The Justice Department is also keen to observe other social virtues that bring about efficient justice administration. These virtues include integrity, community responsibility, communal seminars and training facilities that involve the law. The department has put in place proper channels to report crimes and court procedures. They also post each case procedure in their website to ensure openness (Passrob, 2010).
Justice is the main throbbing heart of peaceful coexistence in the society. A society needs to establish a solid justice system in order to maintain their welfare and improve the quality of their lives. From the essay, it is evident that the relationship between justice administration and management is inseparable. Justice is simply upholding fair treatment and reward in accordance to the achievements. Justice can only be achieved in the society when each person gets what they truly deserve. The people in the society will understand the consequences of actions and rewards expected for each and every good. All the views in justice administration point to one scenario: equality and equitability in the society. A society without a justice system cannot be managed or maintained peaceful in any possible way. Therefore, the management of a society is directly affected by the justice administration in that particular society.