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Real estates’ development is also known as property development. It is a versatile business, encircling activities that vary from the release and renovation of existing structures to the procurement of raw soil and the auction of better parcels or land to others. The developers coordinate the activities, changing written ideas into actual property. Property development varies from construction, though most developers do construct. Developer, Lesser Louis, stated the difference in a Times article in New York 1963, "Developing is the key word 'We do not build ourselves", Mr. Lesser stressed. 'We purchase the land, fund the deal, and then employ the preeminent builders to build at fixed costs under bond’ (Allmendinger & Dunse 2005). Developers purchase land, fund real estates’ deals, construct or have constructors build projects, craft, imagine, orchestrate and control the development process through the beginning to the end. Developers usually bare the greatest peril in the renovation or creation of real estate, as well as enjoy the best rewards. Typically, coordinators purchase a piece of land, settle on the selling of the assets, develop the design and building program, obtain the required public endorsement and financing, construct the building, and lease, supervise, and eventually sell it (Healey 1986). Coordinators work with a number of different counterparts down through each step in this process, counting architects, leasing agents, engineers, city planners, inspectors, surveyors, contractors among others. Development is clear in the “Town and Country Planning Act 1990 s55”. The main reason of planning has been to ‘promote development’ as well as to thwart ‘Undesirable development’. The ground for settling on planning efforts is ordained by decree and a diversity of policy regulation notes of the central government (Baker, Coaffee & Sherriff 2007). The local government has to hold on to these, as well as settle on its own restricted policy by means of the main standard of development strategies. Individual planning requests are settled on in respect to these development strategies. However, often in performance, there are several conflicts and gaps in the control, implying that coordinators often use the services planning consultants who assist them to negotiate with planners (Healey, Doak, MacNamara, & Elson 1985).
Northamptonshire County Waste and Council Mineral
In the preparation and design of the mineral and waste schemes by Horsham District Council in Northamptonshire County Council Mineral and Waste, a number of local plans were factored in the designing and final construction of the project. The director of planning in collaboration with other stakeholders drew up mechanisms that mandated the participation of the local community. The project was set to be constructed from 2012 running to 2015. The aim of the project is to be the largest mineral and waste management scheme in Northamptonshire County. Local agencies, representing the local population have required design team to observe a number of measures (Allmendinger & Dunse 2005). These include keeping an up to date actual plan of the project. Planning should ensure that review of the project can be done at any time to avoid chances of accidents. Maintaining up to date records may also help the community monitor and evaluate the progress of the project. The role of local planning has featured prominently in this project. Right from the start, the community insisted that the project must employ junior level labourers from the community. Local plans have helped, in advance, to make provisions for the hazards that might occur as a result of the mineral project. They have also enabled negotiations between the investors and the agencies. The negotiations are paramount because they give satisfaction to all the interested parties (Baker, Coaffee & Sherriff 2007).
The local groups representing the local inhabitants ensured that a high-quality percentage of the work force hired to work on the project had several of the local people. In addition, local planners predisposed the building of the project in the terms of supplies. The community wanted to be associated with the project by supplying some of the construction materials that were to be used in construction of the project. The lead technocrats had to change the plan to ensure that locally sourced materials could be used in the construction process. It must be appreciated that the project itself was conceived as a result of continuous pressure from the local community. However, taking into consideration input of local planners is appreciated at a certain stage of real estate development, it must be noted that over involvement of local planners in the project has the potential to compromise the quality of projects. The designs and structures of projects are designed in extremely complicated mechanisms. This makes it difficult for developers to factor in the contribution of the local people. The local plans are playing a good role since before they are made, information is gathered thus providing the investors with the information they need.
Expansion project in UWE Bristol Campus
UWE Bristol University is undoubtedly one of the largest higher education institutions in the world. The expansion project being undertaken in UWE is the largest expansion project ever to happen in institutions of higher learning. The construction will involve construction of an expanded students’ residential facility, a media hub and a host of other hospitality projects. Local planning has been factored in numerous ways in construction of this mammoth project. Residential property values are determined largely by location. A house close to a park goes for more than a similar house that is not. Likewise, property near a polluting power plant sells for less than comparable property miles. These are among the factors that make up the neighbourhood and housing characteristics which determine the prices of houses. Research has shown that among the attributes affecting home prices is school quality. People are ready to pay premiums for housing within the school district of a quality school, but what happens when attendance within the school district is associated with reduced college tuition? The experience of the city of Bristol provides unique insight into this question with the introduction of the UWE Bristol Campus expansion project. The local tactics came to by planners, have been helping the Campus to be far-sighted in its development. In the expansion activity, the local plans will have a say in creating a strategy for private investors as well as enabling the public input (Machariah 1999).
The UWE Bristol Campus project is a unique venture that would require massive resources. It provides schooling facilities and other benefits to the community booth around the university and across the UK. The project was announced, and all plans were in top gear to ensure that construction flows as planned. However, local planners representing the community insisted that the project must have a school that would provide free or cheap enrolment to need, but clever students. The community through the local Board of Education board agreed that expansion of the campus must have a school facility that will cater for the needs of the less fortunate children (Adams 1994). They agreed that the school will pay for tuition and fees for 130 credits or a bachelor degree at anyone who qualifies to join the university. It does not grant admission to any school but provides scholarship support once a student has been accepted. The Promise will continue to provide support as long as the student remains full time, makes regular progress towards a degree and achieves a 2.0 grade point average while in college. High school GPA is not a factor of eligibility for the scholarship, and the program is set up to continue indefinitely. The planning of the development helps to create a framework on climate change. Therefore, in case of any unexpected changes in the climate, the developers will be able to cater for it appropriately (Machariah 1999).
Furthermore, the project organizers agreed that for one to be qualified for the erudition, a student should have attended school within the Bristol Public School District for at least four years prior the application. It is one of the program’s goals to encourage early enrolment and participation in the district, and enrolment in Bristol has increased 22% since 2011 as families moved into the area and transferred their kids from private schools (Adams 1992). Additionally, the organization is the lead group in bringing volunteers in the region. The expansion program plans have contributed to make the development sustainable. The local plans also facilitate the translation of visions into progressions, priorities, allocations and policies for more achievable development targets (Adams 1992).
Extra Housing Care Unit at Plymouth City
Plymouth City Council has one of the largest housing care projects in the UK. This noble project was designed to construct residential and business premises that could meet the needs of the physically disabled people. Construction of this noble project was heavily influenced by the local people population who felt that the old, physically and mentally disabled people need extra housing units that could cater for their unique physical needs. This project was a culmination of the efforts of local planners. Plymouth city council in collaboration with the local planners crafted a plan that was to result in construction of extra housing care units (CLG 2008). The city council in coordination with the local people was to craft procedures that were to be followed before allocating housing facilities within the housing care project. This project was conceived against the back drop of various concerns. There have been massive calls from the local population and rights groups that people with disabilities, the old and physically disabled inhabited in deplorable conditions (Healey 1990).
Most low income neighbourhoods are dilapidated and with deplorable living conditions. They lack basic necessities and are overcrowded. Most of these low income areas have a high level of criminal activity. Children have no place to play, or proper schools where they can study. UN HABITAT insists that something must be done about these downtown neighbourhoods. The streets are not well lit, and gangs have been known to operate even in broad day light. A lot needs to be done so as to improve the eminence of the life of these downtown inhabitants. According to Biro, “most electorates would vote yes to the increased funding to re-develop the run-down, unsafe, underdeveloped downtown area through the conversion of old housing stock to high-rent loft space, a commercial district and green space for parks, murals, arts and recreation.
Improving impoverished environs involve a total overhaul of all the dimensions of the human settlement. The safety of the people who live in the urban settlement has to be taken into account. Caulfield concludes that the main aim of a politician should be to improve the quality of life of the inhabitants of these regions. Several factors have to be considered by decision makers before an urban upgrading mission can be completed. The upgrading project must ensure that at the end of the day social cohesion is strengthened.
Social cohesion has to do with the strength or weakness of the relationships between neighbours, professionals, and the entire community. These are the relationships that characterize urban settlements. All the members of the community have to feel like they are part of the society regardless of the individual’s political, social, religious or ethnic inclinations. All people have to be able to coexist peacefully despite coming from different cultural background (CLG 2008).
The modern dwelling place has to be able to take care of all the diversities of the residents of the place. They have to feel as if they belong to the environs. To achieve this, the decision makers have to consider the ways of life of the people who live in the area when they decide to upgrade it. According to Lampe, the identity and beliefs of the society need to be taken into account in line for them to own this. The decision makers also have to collect views from the dwellers before any plan can be affected. This will ensure that the people own the final product.
Security is an additional feature that has to be considered before an urban upgrading project begins. One way to ensure safety of urban dwellers is to reduce the urban divide. An urban divide is the disparity between the social statuses of neighbouring communities (Healey, Doak, MacNamara, & Elson 1985). This gap between communities has been known to encourage crime, especially when affluent neighbourhoods are placed right next to slums or very low income neighbourhoods. These disparities are based on the differences in income levels, access to social amenities, and political participation. Studies have shown that there is a strong relationship between differences in social status and level of crime in neighbourhoods (Baker, Coaffee & Sherriff 2007).
.The third factor, that decision makers have to take into consideration, is the effect that the modern urban settlement will have on the residents. The level of crime is also influenced to a large extent by the structure, design and morphology of an urban settlement. Big cities have been known to experience more crime than small ones. Gangs and mafias have been known to exist more in the big metropolis as impunity reigns in some of these neighbourhoods. There are cities that are well lit, nicely built, with open public seats, where the community may be seated, and enjoy themselves without fear of attack. According to UN HABITAT, these cities have enough security with regular patrols. These cities have an open policy, and there is not much segregation, and, as a result, less crime. On the other hand, cities that are not well lit, congested with no open space encourage criminal activities, and are, therefore, not a safe place to live.
Local governance has to be taken into account when planning an upgrade for an urban settlement. This is because planning of a city should not be viewed simply as a technical matter, rather one that is all inclusive. Safety and development have to be the top most priority of the authorities when planning urban residential houses. A plan that takes care of all the factors mentioned above must be put in place. This plan has to be respected by all the people involved and followed strictly to ensure a positive income. Local governance should be based on laid down principles which have been considered critically and proved true (Healey 1986).
Local authorities have to ensure that the new city plan allows better police patrols, accessible public transport system, and access to public social amenities. Before an urban area can be upgraded, a lot of negotiations are required. According to findings by UN HABITAT, the number of people living in informal settlements has greatly decreased all around the world. Slums have increased through the years because of poor policies implemented by governments. The other reasons why slums develop in cities are lack of infrastructure and an increase of rural to urban migration (Adams 1992).
Slums are places that are greatly neglected with inadequate housing and impoverished surroundings. The services in these slums are deficient, and there are no facilities for recreation. These low income areas have no security and justice almost does not exist. As a result of the nature of these urban areas, it is almost impossible to clean these cities. These regions are vulnerable to criminal activity. Most people from these areas are either crime perpetrators or victims in the city. There are various reasons as to why crime is prevalent in low-income urban areas. Issues such as inequitable distribution of resources, political inclusion, gender balance and unemployment of the youth are among some of the reasons why crime is very common downtown. Initiatives to improve urban residence all over the universe have acknowledged these facts (Healey 1992).
Forced evictions and relocation has had a negative effect which has been witnessed in the places where they have been applied. A holistic approach to the matter of urban upgrading has been known to result in positive changes. Before a low-income neighbourhood is upgraded, policies have to be put in place to ensure that the expected results are achieved. Analysts of urban development have noted that governance needs to be addressed as it has a strong bearing on the status of the city. When the social, economic and political arms of the settlement have been transformed, the community needs to be involved in order to ensure that it is a success.
An integrated urban upgrading plan ensures that the community is empowered, and their living conditions are improved. The people need to be empowered to deal with criminals, and they should be able to work together with the police in a system commonly known as community policing. Local security, largely, depends on how the community feels about their local authorities. Cravatts concludes “planning of the upgrading process has to include all the views of the settlers, and as such they should feel as if they own the city’’ (Allmendinger & Dunse 2005). The needs and demands of the community have to be taken care of in the upgrading plan. As a result of property development, the residents of the developing area, exhibits resistance towards the development project. Consequently, these local plans play a major role in protecting the possessions of investors (Adams 1994).
Urban managers and planners have to be involved in the planning of a city. The security of the city largely depends on how it is planned and managed to a large extent. As such, security matters should not only be left to be cared for by the police or the criminal justice department. Safety and urban development are very closely integrated. Real development should ensure that the quality of life of the inhabitants is improved (Allmendinger & Dunse 2005). There are many ways of empowering the community to fight crime. Education facilities must, therefore, be cared for in the fresh plan as well as other sporting facilities. The youth will also require jobs so income generating activities must be taken care of in the plan for renovations of an urban settlement (Healey 1988). Local plans provide a ground for arbitrating among conflicting interests as well as sustain a stable resolution to conflicting interests (Healey 1992).
Finally, urban upgrading should not be a one-time event, but rather a continuous process. Maintenance must be part and parcel of the city planning activities because the new infrastructure should be repaired frequently. The local authorities must ensure that the street lights function properly, and roads are well maintained. According to Healey (1986, p. 13), all social actors, whether professionals or not, should be involved in the planning of this improvement. At the end of the day, the most important people are the people who already live in these low-income areas. The government must consider how they feel about this change before any buildings can be brought down. Their opinions should count in this matter since they are ones to occupy these modern buildings (Baker, Coaffee & Sherriff 2007). As a result of the housing care unit project in the Plymouth city, there have been conflicts between the main actors in the development. The investors and the law makers always conflict because of the standards set to be met by all investors in constructions. Local plans provide a baseline for negotiations with LPA and developers. For the conflicts to be resolved, there have to be talks between the involved parties to come to a compromise.
Conclusively, planning is paramount in real estate development. The plans form part of the regulations that govern the development process. Therefore, the plans ensure that the projects embarked on are helpful to the public and up to the standard. Planning creates an arena for conflict resolution. Where development is taking place, conflicts are known to occur, therefore, a way out is essential.