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The debate has been ranging on whether the federal government or the states should lower the drinking age to eighteen or maintain it twenty one. Six hundred years ago, the US and English common law recognized twenty one as the full age of an adult. Until the year 1971, twenty one year of age was the maintained as the legitimate voting and drinking age. In the US, many of the rights began at 21years or older. A person can gamble at a casino legally at twenty one. At this age, on can possess a hand gun, rent a vehicle, adopt children and may vie for the presidency at thirty five. After the end of the Vietnamese war, the 18-year-olds, following the 26th amendment of the constitution became the recommended age of an adult. The proponents of such amendments proposed that 18 years old be regarded as an adult. They, therefore, argues that adults have the ultimate right to decide on matters involving their drinking lives. In Wagenaar, et al.(2000) states that agreed to lower the drinking age has just suffered, and experienced dramatic surge injuries, highway crashes and fatal deaths. This is a clear indication that lowering the drinking age simply raises the risks.
Miron and Telelbaum (2009) suggest the act of lowering the drinking from 21-years to eighteen would be medically irresponsible. Consumption of alcohol would result in interference of the functioning of the brain. The brain frontal lobes are essential for total control of emotions, planning and organizing of the person from adolescent to young adult then to full grown. Alcohol consumption will halt the development process, causing chronic problems like exposing a young man into addiction. The young engages in dangerous and risk taking behavior, lose memory, they become violent and sometime commit suicide (Birckmayer & Hemenway, 1999).). Lowering the drinking age allows a large segment of the population to take alcohol in night clubs and bars which are considered extremely unsafe environment. Most drivers drink while drunk and end up being arrested. Others lose their lives if involved in traffic crashes. Neighborhood with many licensed drinking establishment and other alcohol selling localities suffer violent crimes and assaults frequently.
Lowering the US drinking age would give the high and middle scholars easier access to alcohol. Newly enrolled legal drinkers often purchase alcohol for the underage peers. These trends create a trickle-down effect. The raising of drinking age to twenty one will assist in preventing underage binge drinking by hardening the means of younger people accessing alcohol. If the age is set at twenty one, the age will exert valuable social pressure on potential minor drinkers. In a study by Greenfield & Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (U.S.) (1993), the young may choose to stay away from drinking or drinking less due to the set values. They would fear decrease in social acceptability or legal authority under the constitution of that country. The alcohol drinking joints will cease from selling to minors with the perception that the act is not legal or morally upright.
The middle age of drinking should and forever remain at twenty one. This is the age at which people tend to be responsible and mature more than when they are at eighteen. The eighteen years young adults are said to be typically turning into a new independence phase from their guardian via work force or college. The 18-years –old again become susceptible to binge drinkers easily, involve themselves into risky sexual immorality and other filthy and quire behavior. In a study by Tenaglia-Webster (2009), the earlier the young people begin taking alcohol the more likely they would start taking other illicit drugs. Lowering the age by the states would lead to rise in number of teen drinkers thus large numbers of teens using other drug emerge.