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Second Industrial revolution was referred to as Technological Revolution and it took place between last half of 19th Century and early 20th Century. It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution which began in Britain in the late 18th century, then spread throughout Western Europe and North America. The First Industrial Revolution was a time of drastic change marked by the general introduction of power-driven machinery. The Second Industrial Revolution proved more drastic, not only in technological inventions, but in social and political reforms. The Second Industrial Revolution has become a pivotal element in formation of the world. In this paper, I am going to explore the changes it made such as the changes of technological practices and the shift of technological leadership and also illustrate the impact of Second Industrial Revolution in Europe in the early 20th century.
(Social perspective) The Second Industrial Revolution led to the changes in science and technology in today’s society. These new technologies were of great importance in use of electricity, internal combustion engine, communication technologies like telegraph and radios which improved communication, also in new substances like chemicals and metals (Jones, 2005). These new industries were larger and more productive than any industries existing before. On the other hand, the consequence of changing production technology was the rise of technological systems, especially in use of new technological machines replaced human labor. Machines have replaced people in some jobs which they used to do. Computers have made the work of writing and storing data easy. Instead of hand written records which were stored in large files, computer stores large volumes of data. Farmers use machines in planting their crops rather than use of hands which makes the work easier and production increases. (***Expand this paragraph in the consequence of “Machines have replaced people” in less than 50 words***)
(Political perspective) The Second Industry Revolution promoted the transition to freedom of the capitalist monopoly, and the establishment of a handful of advanced nations in the world in the oppression of the majority of residents to curb the world financial system. At the time between the end of 19th century and early 20th century, the Second Industrial Revolution has brought rapid economic rise of capitalism; it has quickly shifted attentions from light industries to heavy industries. The United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom have become dominated by heavy industry, and this change established capitalism industry's dominant position in the economic structure in the world. Since the 1870s, with advances in productivity, competition continued to intensify. In order to obtain greater profit, the capitalists wanted new approaches to get more efficient production. As a result, monopoly had appeared in major capitalist countries. Britain, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and America became homes of monopoly organizations. Liberal capitalism has transitioned to monopoly capitalism, and has spread to all corners of the world. The emergence of this system marks the formation of the new world.