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American Industrial Revolution of the 19th century had a huge influence on the economy of the USA, its future life and the development of the American nation as a whole. American Industrial Revolution was a result of the first Industrial Revolution which occurred in Western Europe, starting in England, and finished in the USA and Germany. The scholars stated three main events of the Revolution, which are the follows: 1) the expansion of transportation; 2) the development of electricity; 3) the improvement of industrial process (Cowan, 1997, p.68).
Firstly, the expansion of transportation brought with it tremendous changes in the transportation and communication system. Manufacturing machines moved into various industries bringing with it the development of economy, involving new technology in the people`s work and life, making the working process more effective and easy. More and more people moved into cities to work in the factories and plants, therefore, increasing the number of rural areas, to expand trade and develop the manufacturing sector.
Secondly, the development of electricity gave the opportunity to use and control electricity more effectively and efficiently, thus, the industrial process had benefits from that generating more outputs. The great achievement was an invention of the telegraph system by Samuel F.B. Morse in 1844 that influenced on the improvement of better communication system and network (Cowan, 1997, p.134).
Thirdly, the improvement of industrial process was achieved due to the revolutionary changes in the economy, as due to the development of factories and plants, various industries appeared and more workers found jobs there. People moved from rural farms, thus, urban cities expanded and more opportunities appeared, though some problems had appeared, such as overcrowding of the cities, crimes, robbery, and others.
Thus, American Industrial Revolution with its inventions made manufacturing process more effective what led to higher productivity of the working process, and enormous growth of the economy and, therefore, the profits of business owners.
Immigration to the United States in the Late 1800s and Early 1900s
Immigration is an important part of American history, which has its influence on economic, political and cultural life of the U.S. society. Its roots go back to the 15th century, after Christopher Columbus discovered America and first immigrants, mainly from Western Europe, started to come to the United States looking for better life, freedom, new opportunities and religion. Scholars usually characterize immigration to the United States during the late 1800s and early 1900s as the immigration from Eastern and Southern Europe (Roger, 2002, p.96). The main goal of their migration was to get better opportunities in a new country and, therefore, to have a better life and work in the United States for themselves and their children. The immigrants came mainly from Italy, Poland and after revolutionary Russia. Due to estimated sources, during five years (1919-1924) a quarter of a million immigrants came from Eastern Europe, fifty per cent of which were Jews and twenty- five – Poles. Jews came mainly from Russia in the period between 1860 and 1920. The main reason of Jews immigration from Russia was of ethnical and religious origin. Italy was rather poor and overcrowded in the late 1800s and early 1900s, what made many people to leave the country, because of low wages and high taxes. Most of Italian immigrants were from very poor communities with little or no education, two-thirds of them were men.
Immigration from Eastern and Southern Europe was not as desirable as it was at the beginning of the 19th century, when immigrants came from Western Europe, mainly from Germany, England and Scandinavian countries, where the standards of life were much higher than in Eastern and Southern Europe (Roger, 2002, p.112). The immigrants from poor parts of Europe brought with them poverty, crime, different diseases and disorder into the society. That made the immigration of the late 1800s and early 1900s undesirable process in the American history.
The Progressive Reform Movement of the Early 1900s
The Progressive Reform Movement of the early 1900s in the United States was a result of American Industrial Revolution and immigration that had a great influence in different spheres of life, including economy, politics and culture. Marcus and Burner (p.123) noted that the Progressive Reform Movement was an obvious fact which could happen in the early 20th century. The enormous growth of manufacturing, various discoveries, modernization led to the corruption among American politics. The movement had economic and political roots and it reflected the ideas and needs of that period of the history of the United States.
To the conclusion, it`s worth to note, that all the three major events, which took place in the late 1800s and early 1900s: American Industrial Revolution, Immigration and Progressive Reform Movement, are of great importance in the history of the United States, which have impact in the world development as well. These important historical events led the USA to its prosperity, power and the leading position in the world economy.