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Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) are the organisms genetic components of which have undergone alteration through a combination of genetic engineering procedures (Parekh 20). Such an alteration is achieved by transferring a beneficial gene from one organism to improve or change the features of another organism. This principle was enhanced by the discovery of the DNA in the early 1970s. Since then, the technology has found application in almost all live forms. Transgenic organisms and genetically modified foods are the constituents of GMOs.
There exist several means of transferring genes from one organism to another. Selective method is one of the traditional techniques that naturally occur through selective breeding. Similarly, the same approach is applied in the laboratory through the transfer of desired genes to achieve the desired traits (Ho 45).
Since invention of GMO, the technology has significantly boosted food industry, biological researches, medical researchers, and pharmaceutical companies. Currently, the technology has led to food crops that are not only resistant to pests or herbs, but have also improved production and quality (Skancke 32).
The improvements in this technology have seen an increase in animal population with increased resistance to diseases and parasites infection. Genetically modified animals have demonstrated an improvement in animal health and yields (Skancke 32).
Transgenic animals have enhanced biomedical research, as they are most preferred during phenotypic procedures. In this regard, transgenic animals have played a significant role in the development of cures and treatments for numerous diseases (Young 67).
Despite its significance, the use of GMOs has initiated numerous debates globally. A significant number of individuals view the use of GMOs as inappropriate and interfering process aimed at destabilizing the natural biological processes (Weasel 34).
Other individuals argue that GMO modification would result in the introduction of foreign allergens in food hence may compromise the health of the consumer. Despite the recent assertions by food experts that genetically modified foods pose no harmful threat to human beings, opponents of GMO use still insist that there exist unknown effects of consuming these foods and thus the need for more research in this field (Weirich 89).
Critics of this technology argue that with GMOs adoption there will be numerous adverse effects on the environment (Ho 45). These individuals base their arguments on the facts that unintended transfers of genes will occur because of cross-pollination. In this regard, there will be unknown effects on organisms such as soil microbes.
The current world’s population growth rate necessitates the adoption of GMO technology to satisfy the ever-increasing food demand. Nevertheless, governments and other relevant bodies should dedicate more attention to investigate the GMO opponents’ claims to settle the current raging controversies. Equally, GMO technologies must be regulated to ensure that the technology is used appropriately and comply with the code of ethics. In addition, industrialized nations should to work together with the developing nations in adopting the best GMO technologies on tropical plants to improve on food security.