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Environmental change has become a major interest all over the world. There are issues arising every day concerning the environment. This has attracted interest of many nations and countries. Measures have been taken to address environmental issues and conserve the environment. Mitigation and adaptation are the most common measures that have been taken by most countries and nations (Rosenbaum, 1991). This paper will address some of the major environmental complications, and environmental politics and policies of The United States, Japan and Germany. Environmental politics examines the evolution of environmental movements, carries the ideas of various movements, cover the burning international issues and provide analysis of making and implementing public policy. Climate change and global warming are the main environmental issues facing the world. These are caused mainly by emission of green house gases. Climate change results to desertification due to shortage of rain. Developed countries are the largest emitters of green house gases, though; the less developed countries are affected more than the developed countries. This is because; the developed countries have strong economies which are able to absorb shocks that result from changes in the environment. For instance, The United States, Germany and Japan are often perceived to be among the leading emitters of green house gases in the world. They are however able to stand the effects of the gases because they have strong economies. Environmental politics targets mainly the developed nations not leaving behind the developing nations. For instance, The United States emits twice as much as Germany emits. The United States being the leading green house gas emitter should be leading in conserving the environment. However, the Bush administration did not stand ready to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. This protocol aimed to see the developed countries reduce their level of green house gas emission. Kyoto protocol advocated for mitigation activities that would help countries to lower emission of green house gas. The Bush administration opposed the mitigation activities. They viewed it as a threat to the growing economies and feared the tradeoff that would result in terms of the American jobs. However, the Non-governmental organizations of The United States support the Kyoto protocol. For instance, The US Conference of mayors established a mayor’s climate protection center. They crafted it to mainly ensure the implementation of the Kyoto protocol and challenge the opponents. They also aimed at urging the federal and the state government to enact programs and policies that would USA to achieve the set targets in the Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol set a target of seven percent by year two thousand and twelve. The non-governmental organizations wanted to set up emissions trading, Carbon sequestration and public-private partnership. The non- governmental organization aimed at lowering the growth of green house gases by eighteen percent by year two thousand and twelve, promote international components and establish an important ground work for both current and future action through investing in science and technology. The US set two billion to cater for the program. Science and technology program would help them make better decisions (Desai, 2002). USA also has a nuclear power program which is a venture between the government and industries. This program was founded in year two thousand and ten. The government and industries share the costs that are involved. They aim to identify new nuclear power plants, develop advanced nuclear technology and demonstrate untested regulatory process. This will result into; an overall decrease in level of green house gas emitted. The US also has clean air rules which aim to improve the quality of air in the United States. These rules also address pollution caused by the transport sector by aiming at the reduction of gases emitted by the transport vessels. They also have a climate vision, which is a voluntary partnership. The industry sector and the business roundtable, work together, to reduce emission of green house gases (Lester, 1999). Germany on the other hand, embraced climate change action. It considered it as an important and challenging policy area that required much attention. Germany has been leading in the call for a reduction of green house gas emission by the industrialized industries. It has a policy to reduce its green house gases emission level by forty percent in year two thousand and twenty. Germany launched a feed-in tariff to support the development of renewable energies. It also hosted the United Nations Framework Convection for Climate Change secretariat. German launched and singed the Kyoto protocol. The main political parties in the country supported the climate change initiative, though; non -governmental organizations challenge the Germany government for setting low standards (Sachs, 2011). Germany is perceived as a role model internationally for its success and commitment in environment conservation. Germany has lesser non- governmental organizations than United States, though; its commitment surpasses that of United States. Japan has few non-governmental organizations. It supports the Kyoto protocol, though; not as much as Germany. It hosted the third conference of parties that led the formation of the protocol. Japan also ratified the Kyoto protocol together with Germany. It supported the global target of reducing the green house gas emission by fifty percent in year twenty thousand and twenty. Japan has launched a one hungered year plan to promote new technology and alternative energy sources. It has a green aid program which aims to assist developing nations to adopt environmental friendly technology.
Environmental conservation is a collective role for the whole world. The developed countries should be in the front line since they are the leading polluters of the environment. However, if all countries are committed, environmental problems would be a thing of the past.