|← Macroeconomics||Advertisements →|
The following study is an analysis of the impact off shoring has on employment and production volatility, taking into account the maquiladora industry in Mexico. It will be focusing on the experimental results of the output of the off shoring the manufacturing industries in Mexico are volatile than those in the United States.
The results insinuate that the maquiladora help the United States industrial sector to take up shocks. The off shoring through maquiladora in Mexico has been acting as a pillow for the business sequence fluctuations in the United States.
Volatility in Mexico is higher than that of United States the writers pick a list of the most common commodities that they used as a test. They used assembly of apparels, electronic materials and accessories. The level of volatility an economy is facing determines the availability of workers in both Mexico and United States of America and the salary they get at the end of the month. The maquiladora is affected by the exchange-rate fluctuation making volatility of Mexico to be extraordinarily high. The Mexico economy is also another reason causing Mexico to be more volatile because it is more volatile than the United States. Mexican offshore industries are smaller than the United States industries. (Ryscavage 210)
Extension margin is the number of usable inputs employed in any given company. This can be explained like hiring an additional worker would increase the extension margin. A company in Mexico called Delphi opened new branches in America, when America was undergoing an economic expansion. The off shoring company hires or fire members when the extension margin adjusts. (Cline 264)
According to current research carried out to determine the levels of volatility, the research indicates that volatility takes the form in both extensive and intensive margins. However, research has determined that extensive margin account for a third to a half of employment volatility in the maquiladora industry in Mexico.
One of the main reasons why employment in Mexico is volatile than the United States employment sector is because Mexican economy is more volatile. Employment of workers in the production industries, in Mexico, has a lower monthly standard deviation than United States of America. Putting in to consideration that Mexican industries are smaller than the United States industries the volatility rate should be high in America than in Mexico. In conclusion, Maquiladora has considerably greater volatility that the American industries lack. (Cline 265)
Normally, skilled labor is always expensive, because the employment of such worker is always assumed to be special. This has for a long time put the skilled workers at an advantageous position because most employees pay depending on the skill one holds. Comparing America and Mexico in terms of skilled labor, the United States has a high number of skilled workers than Mexico. It makes difficult to work with skilled laborers as they are expensive for any company compared to the unskilled workers. The United States of America finds it to be cheap to work with the unskilled as they are affordable. Most of the unskilled workers, work in the assembly industries as they are many in numbers and offer cheap services.
The skilled labor is sensitive to its own wages. User cost of capital has a significant negative impact on skilled employment. A weaker currency impacts negatively on unskilled employment. Taking the example of Maquiladora industry and the united state's economy, the margin in between the two is sturdy and due to the weakness of the peso, the dollar has continued to dominate. (Cline 262)
Skilled worker have specified duties to attend to and, in addition they work, in the organization level, in any employment sector of the companies. Skilled workers also have the advantage of working in better conditions while the unskilled workers work in poor conditions. This has affected the way different workers are paid wages for the unskilled is affected by the influx of unskilled people in both countries. The skilled continue to earn highly as they are always on demand from various companies. In order for these companies, to maintain the skilled workers they are forced to pay more than the other companies. (Harjes 16)
The theorem of price equalization adapts the Heckscher Ohlin model as a result of some assumptions. Specifically, the assumption of matching production methods leads to the outcome that workers have the same productivity. The theorem also assumes that the prices of goods will be the same; therefore, the equally productive workers will receive identical payment, because workers marginal product is equivalent to the wage.
This theorem in current times can not apply because different workers have different productivities and earn differently depending on their productivity. For example, labor in the United States of America is productive, and workers earn high wages compared to Mexico. (Harjes 10)
Scholars have differed about the causes and significance of the rising inequality in wages. This led to 'Occupy' protest movement in 2011, set by the rising inequality in income, In America. Some of the causes include increased demand for skilled workers, partisan politics and poor public policies. Some economists have explained the rising inequality by use of hypothesis. Some of these hypotheses include globalization hypothesis, which indicates that, low skilled workers are losing in job opportunities to low waged workers in Asia and other rising economies. Another hypothesis is the caused by the skilled biased technological change which shows the fast growing information technology which demands the use of skilled and educated workers. This has led to the income distribution favoring the skilled workers over the unskilled workers. According to George Borjas, migration of less educated workers has reduced the wages of low skilled workers in America by 5%. (Ryscavage 210)
As more evidence accumulates, the hypotheses have proved to be increasingly inadequate, according to Paul Krugman, an economist.