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The development of the female figure sculptures in Greece starting from the archaic period and during the Hellenistic period reflects historical significance in ancient civilization. Each of the periods portrays its identifiable features of female sculptures. During the archaic period, the female figure, also called the Kore, was sculpted while clothed. The females stood with their feet together exposing their arms and feet. The respect attributed to women “necessitated the clothing of female sculptures” (Blundell, 1995). In addition, the sculptures presented archaic smiles that were simple and easy for artists. However, these sculptures reflected no emotions.
The second stage of sculpturing emerged during the classical period. During this time, sculptures were more melodramatic and presented unique features of the stage. Sculptures of nude females began to emerge in this period. Some of the nude females include the Aphrodite sculpture and Athena. Artists exploited ornamental potentialities of the wind-blown design to promote fabric cover. Athena, the goddess, “was a nude sculpture which could be clothed periodically” (Pollitt, 1990).
The Hellenistic period succeeded the classical period. Due to the changing cultural values, artists reflected personality and emotional conditions of individuals. By the use of detailed and symbolical sculpturing, the artists designed figures focused on certain specifications. The relationship that “existed between gods and giants was of significant importance to the artists” (Blundell, 1995). The female sculptures portray the values attached to women and the position they held in the society.
A single piece of sculpture that reflected the stylish principles of the Greek art is the Athena. This sculpture represented a goddess who was Zeus’ daughter. Based on this, Athena was a nude sculpture “designed with the use of valuable materials like bronze and marble” (Pollitt, 1990). This grandiose work was well ordered in the chryselephantine system. Therefore, the sculpture was constantly clothed and provided with security to elicit the importance attached to it. In addition, the sculpture reflected the distinct conditions of the period.
The major techniques used by Roman architects include the vaults and arches. Vaults were techniques that provided space as well as ceiling for huge buildings. As such, the “vaults enhanced thrust and countered resistance” (Nardo, 2001). The main vaults used were the domes and barrel vaults. On the other hand, arches entailed structures with curved nature that could withstand heavy weights. By the use of this technique, the architects could design buildings with large span openings facilitating the support of heavy weights. In addition, creative and exploratory crafts were attainable. Meanwhile, the architects could design different types of columns such as Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian types. These types created varied forms of buildings that suited the interests of individuals’ statuses. Some of the reputable buildings included the aqueducts of Rome as well as Baths of Diocletian and Caracalla. In addition, the basilicas and Colosseum were very important to the Roman Empire. In this regard, these types of buildings were replicated in smaller regions of the empire (Adam, 1994).
The Greek Parthenon and the Roman Pantheon refer to building structures that exhibit similar and distinct features. The rulers meant the buildings for religious roles. In this case, the Parthenon was meant for paying tribute to the Greek god of Athena. On the contrary, the creation of Pantheon aimed at honoring the Roman god called Jupiter. The Greek Parthenon referred to rectangular buildings. The Parthenon “consisted of rounded tops called the Doric columns intended for honoring of gods” (Mann, 1998). On the other hand, the Roman Pantheon entailed round buildings that had square fronts. Similarly, the Pantheon had fancy flowers or pictures at the peak of columns. They were also known as Corinthian columns. These types of buildings represent unique periods and culture of the two regions. The periods entail the competition for architectural supremacy and the need to enhance beautiful scenery. In addition, the culture reflected the need for honoring their gods with supreme creations.