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Arguments that appeal to questionable authority: This is an appeal that is made but the authority is not mentioned; e.g.”Professionals concur that...”, “scientists confirmed...” This makes the information not viable to verification and creates the real notion that the person does not know who the people are. He may just be dispersing a rumor.

 Argument that appeals to common practice: This is an appeal that leads to people’s decision making on what others are doing: e.g. “its common that HIVpatients that do not use ARV’s die early “.thus  “ it is acceptable for HIV patients to take ARV “

Argument that appeals to common belief: These are appeals made on beliefs: e.g. “it is a common belief that having sex before marriage is bad; thus sex before marriage is bad.”

 Argument that appeals to two wrongs (two wrongs make a right): These are wrong decisions made at the expense of others doing the wrong thing e.g. “female genital mutilation is a bad practice, thus, despite being an abomination, other communities still practice it.

Argument that Appeals to Indirect Consequences: By employing a series of dubious promising actions with vague connections, the facts posed does not ascertain the conclusion that a result that is somewhat possible, and regularly very unconstructive, will sustain an action or belief, e.g. James boss should not let the divorce happen, since he will lose concentration at work; since losing concentration at work will lead to more tress and depression; since the stress and depression will make him lose touch with his family and clients; and finally, since losing ouch with his family and clients will render him jobless and without a family. Thus, James boss should not let the divorce happen, since it will render him jobless and without a family.

Argument that Appeals to Wishful Thinking: By employing a series of dubious promising actions with vague connections, the facts posed does not ascertain the conclusion that a result that is somewhat possible, and regularly very constructive, will sustain an action or belief, e.g. The farmers should not sell their produce to foreign markets, since it will increase the country’s hunger levels; since it will increase the country’s hunger levels, it will lead to increased crime rate; since it will lead to increased crime rate, it will impact negatively to the stock market; thus,  the farmers should not sell their produce to foreign markets, since it will impact negatively to the stock market.

Argument that appeals to fear (scare tactics): Emotions also play a part on influencing our decisions: e.g. “many people are afraid of jail; thus, people should be law abiding.

Argument that appeals to pity: By playing emotions, this could counter decisions made e.g. “Showing sympathy to pregnant women; thus, people should not allow them to queue in public and institutions.”

Argument that appeals to Prejudice: For example, the bias that is portrayed in the political arena. A candidate might not be voted for in as the leader of a country because he has relations with a rival country.

Argument that Appeals to (ad Populum/to the people) Loyalty: For example; Mike’s mum shows loyalty to her extended family. Te extended family has a lot of influence in the society. Thus, every member of the society should respect the extended family. This shows the lack of evidence for the conclusion that one should line up with some group of people.

Argument that Appeals to (or hatred, and to indignation) Spite: By playing upon emotions, it does not give evidence for the conclusion that one should do what someone else wishes. For example, John’s fiancé feels sad for the loss of her insured car in the accident. John may be tapped in feeling the same. Therefore, john should help her retrieve the insurance benefits.

Argument that Appeals to Vanity: It does not provide evidence for the conclusion that one should do what someone else wishes, e.g. the customer congratulated the waitress for bringing him his food on time the customer did not want to be late for a meting. Thus, the waitress should.

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