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Hate crime is an offence related to crime that is committed either to an individual, a group of people or private property which is highly influenced by hatred and discrimination. Hate crimes are prevalent in environments that have diverse characteristics, where each party struggles for great influence, eventually leading to hatred. This type of crime takes several forms which includes; physical attack, destruction to property, direct verbal threats or through phone calls, use of gestures, and offensive messages or letters. Hate crime victims experience a range of effects ranging from psychological trauma leading to isolation, physical losses to life and property, and economic losses.
Hate Crime Analysis
Hate crime in most cases is based on factors such as racial differences, religious diversity, ethnic and nationality, sexual orientation and gender bias. A case example of hate crime in the United States of America, where hate crime mainly occurs based on the racial differences, Religious linkage and sexual orientation. Base on the racial differences, hate crimes in the U.S mostly affect two races; Blacks and Whites, with the blacks being at higher risk than whites. According to La Griffe du Lion..The data collected from the FBI, shows that a black in the US is about 20 times more likely to be a victim of hate crime than a white.
On the account of religion La Griffe du Lion recalls the period between January 1995 and November 1996 when there was an increased rate of incidents concerning the burning of the black churches in the South. The leaders of the time expressed their concerns .Ralph Reed termed it as "the greatest outbreak of violence against the black church since the height of the civil rights movement." While president Clinton met with the Governors of the southern states in search of the solutions to the burnings and later on Clinton toured the burn out churches ,once on his 50th birthday.
The victim- offender mediation and conferencing model of restorative justice can be used in these cases to help find the solution. This model of the restorative justice has a many benefits to the both the victim and the offender, for instance, the victim receives assistance in seeking for justice and has an opportunity to input individual efforts in pursuance of justice. Both the victim and the offender are given active roles to play. It empowers the victims in their search for justice while showing the offenders the effects of their actions and provides the opportunity for the offenders to accept their mistakes. It emphasizes need for the offenders to take responsibility and repair the harm caused to the victims in a compassionate and friendly way. It leads to a secure environment for all the parties.
However this model of restoration justice faces several challenges which includes; the lack of co-operation amongst the participants whereby the offender feels superior or unsafe, Possible failure of the mediation which is attributed to favourism to one side and failure to effect the agreement.
The survey is the best contemporary research instrument for hate crime against the blacks in the United States because it takes into consideration a wide range of variables. The rational choice theory; this theory is based on the assumption that human beings have freedom of choice and they (human beings) tend to choose their behaviour pattern in line with rational calculations that maximize their pleasure while minimizing pain. In theory the United States society is best analyzed due to its background history where they have long history for the struggle for freedom between the blacks and the whites.
Hate crime is perpetuated at high frequencies but mostly goes unnoticed, because it occurs between a minority and majority groups. Communities should be organized to response and prevention of hate crimes. Groups in the community should be engaged towards cohesion in line with diversity.