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« Term paper. Requirements to a writing and registrationMethodical recommendations about performance of research papers about a speciality the Finance and the credit »
07.01.2011

Write term paper!

Themes of term papers can be defined and other ways:

1. Under the initiative and but to the offer of the teacher conducting research work on a certain problem. The teacher can include in structure of developers and students, having offered them for creative search the list of concrete themes.

2. At a personal choice of a theme the student when the student chooses a theme corresponding to its interest.

3. At the personal desire of the student directed on overcoming of problems or difficulties, arising in its practical activities (before receipt in high school or in the course of training in high school).

4. As a result of acquaintance with the special literature in studied area and periodic trade papers.

In all cases to an independent choice of a theme can, promote the receptions, helping to choose a research theme. Among them:

Repetition before the executed researches with use of other technique;

Acquaintance with the special literature and periodic trade papers;

Check of one of the hypotheses which have been put forward, but not checked up by scientists;

Choice of a theme close to a problematics, before the executed researches, with use of new, more perfect methods;

At a choice of a theme for the student-researcher are extremely necessary:

Meetings with the teacher for finding-out of actual problems in studied areas;

Consultations of leading scientists for revealing few the studied problems and the questions having an actual meaning;

Viewing of state-of-the-art reviews of achievements of the science made leading experts (in the end of such reviews unresolved problems are often specified);

The concrete subjects of term papers should meet following requirements:

To correspond to problems of preparation of experts;

To consider directions and a problematics of modern scientific researches;

To attach students to work on problems which are investigated by separate teachers and collective of chair of psychology as a whole;

To consider various interests of students in studied area (theories, positions, hypotheses, discussions etc.), and also results of work in a scientific student's society;

To develop actual problems of education and training of children.

The theme of term paper should be actual and correspond to a modern level of development of a science and practice. The theme urgency is defined by problems of perfection of work in studied area.

Organizational-research activity on preparation, a writing and registration the course 

For work on gathering, sorting and preparation of a necessary information material, on the organisation of skilled-experimental and research work; the analysis and generalisation, and also a writing and registration of term paper for the student the supervisor of studies from among teachers of high school is fixed. The supervisor of studies is fixed by corresponding documents to the student. Ethical standards and rules of the teacher and the student to be mutually precautionary, polite, tactful and mutually betrayed in the personal plan, yes if they disperse in ideas, the concept and methodology of an investigated problem.

After the theme of term paper is chosen and co-ordinated with the supervisor of studies, the planned schedule in which are defined is made: stages, methods, a course of skilled-experimental work; character and an experiment kind, and also terms of performance of principal views of activity.

The plan is the basic document. It affirms managing chair. Reports of the supervisor of studies and the student can be heard of a course of its performance.

Scheduling assumes deep and concrete knowledge of basic scientifically-methodological base of psychology: methodology, main principles of psychology, the basic methodological principles. Thus:

1. Methodology consideration in interrelation with methods and research techniques.

2. A support on main principles of psychology: a determinism, unity and consciousness of activity, development.

3. The account and orientation to the basic methodological principles, as necessity of observance at any method:

The method should start with dialektiko-materialistic representation about an object of science, reflect its specificity;

The scientific method, both psychology, and pedagogics should be objective;

Observance of a genetic (evolutionary) principle;

Necessity of scientific generalisations taking into account individual distinctions.

Research planning assumes:

Selection and approbation of methods and techniques.

Definition of a place of research. It should be isolated from external hindrances (at least, these influences it are necessary for considering), to meet sanitary-and-hygienic and engineering-psychological requirements, i.e. to provide certain comfort and easy working conditions.

Research hardware. It should correspond to the solved problems, all course of research and level of the analysis of received results.

Selection of examinees, thus it is desirable to provide their qualitative uniformity. 

Working out (drawing up) of the instruction of research. It should be accurate, short, unequivocal.

Definition both under the form, and under the maintenance of an order of written fixing of results of research. The report should be simultaneously hollow and purposeful (selective).

Processing of results of research is a quantitative both qualitative analysis and synthesis of the data received during research.

As rod element of the plan stages of performance of term paper act. Taking into account the developed practice, as a rule, it is allocated four stages.

Theoretical methods: studying and the analysis of the literature and documents; the analysis of an experimental material, generalisation.

Empirical methods: supervision, conversation, the test, studying of products of activity, the questionnaire, studying of an operational experience of the practical psychologist, skilled pedagogical work, experiment.

Besides, there are also other methods. So, for example, methods: a modelling method, a generalisation method, conversation. We will briefly review each of them:

The modelling method is a reproduction of characteristics of some object on other object specially created for their studying. At the heart of it analogy reception lays. The modelling method can be used at designing of teaching and educational process or its fragments, at development of a working hypothesis. With the help «models - hypotheses» mechanisms of communications between elements of studied process reveal, recommendations about its perfection are created.

Generalisation method. The given method is used at different investigation phases and allows to draw conclusions by results of each of them and work as a whole.

Conversation (with children, teachers, parents). Are used for studying of statement of process of training and for finding-out of problems on a research course. Results of conversations are carefully fixed. The conversation is adjoined by methods of interview and questioning which are described and join in the work text.

Stages of performance of term paper assume a logic order and interrelation of skilled-experimental or research work. The analysis of the developed practice shows three stages as the most rational variant.

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The first stage - preparatory. Definition of a problem of research. Studying of a condition of a problem: introspection of, the experience, the knowledge on the given problem; studying and the analysis of the special methodical literature. A formulation of a working hypothesis, the purpose and problems of course research. Technique working out.

The second stage - gathering of the fact sheet. Studying and the literature analysis under the question theory; working out of the plan of experimentally-skilled work, the maintenance and a technique of ascertaining experiment, offers on optimisation of a technique of training and education of children, their studying. Carrying out of skilled work on check of a working hypothesis and offers; supervision and their fixing; the analysis of results of skilled work; a formulation of conclusions and recommendations.

The third stage - quantitative and qualitative data processing of research. Definition of average sizes, measures of dispersion of data, factors of correlation, etc., construction of schedules.

The fourth stage - interpretation of data and a formulation of conclusions. Registration of term paper: configuration and a writing of texts of introduction, heads and paragraphs, the conclusion; drawing up of lists of the literature, an illustrative material, appendices; registration of tables of contents and the title page; schematic modelling of the logic maintenance of all work.

In term paper set of different theoretical and empirical methods of research is used. Thereupon, there is a necessity to stop on some criteria of a choice of methods:

Adequacy to object, subject and research problems;

Scientific validity;

Conformity to the logic of research;

Orientation on all-round and harmonious development of the person of the examinee;

Interrelation with other methods in uniform methodical system.

It is possible to carry variants to the basic methods of scientific research on B.G.Ananevu and variants on B.S.Volkovu and N.V.Volkovoj. A variant on B.G.Ananevu. Their four groups of methods (Ananev B.G., 1976):

The first group - organizational methods. They include a comparative method (comparison of various groups on age, activity etc.); a method (repeated inspections of the same indicators throughout the long period of time); a complex method (representatives of different sciences participate in research; thus, as a rule, one object study different means. Researches such allow to establish communications and dependences between the phenomena of different type, for example, between physiological, psychological and social development of the person);

The second group - the empirical methods including: supervision and introspection; experimental methods, psychodiagnostic methods (tests, questionnaires, questionnaires, interview, conversation), the analysis of products of activity, biographic methods;

The third group - the methods of data processing including: quantitative (statistical) and qualitative (differentiation of a material on groups, the analysis) methods;

The fourth group - the methods including genetic (the material analysis in the plan for development with allocation from efficient phases, stages, the critical moments, etc.) and structural (establishes structural communications between all characteristics of the person) methods.

Variant on B.S.Volkovu and N.V.Volkovoj. They subdivide methods on two groups: theoretical and empirical (practical) (Volkov B.S., Volkova N.V., 2002).

4. Skilled-experimental work

Skilled-experimental work - a method of change of deliberate changes in the educational and educational process, calculated on reception of educational and educational effect, with the subsequent check.

Skilled-experimental work is means of check of a hypothesis. It acts as an experiment version.

Skilled-experimental work is described in term paper. The detailed characteristic of examinees, age, quantity is given, the material used in skilled work is described. If it represents the image of subjects it is inserted into the test or the appendix. The equipment Is underlined (devices, equipment) were used. It is necessary to describe all course of work, including the instruction which was given to examinees. It is necessary to note, what way processed the obtained data.

Results of skilled-experimental work can be presented in tables, schedules, diagrammes etc. To tables, drawings, diagrammes should make signatures - short and clear. Under drawing to place explanatories, decoding of reductions. All illustrations need to be carried out accurately. Here it is possible to result endurances from verbal reports.

5. Psihologo-pedagogical experiment (for course on pedagogics, psychology, sociology and other humanities)

Psihologo-pedagogical experiment as the method, is directed on hypothesis check, an establishment not only relationships of cause and effect in studied object, but also on revealing of the mechanism of action of these communications. In term paper actions of these communications are used.

The basic methodological problem of psihologo-pedagogical experiment - hypothesis finding-out (has proved to be true or has not proved to be true).

During psihologo-pedagogical experiment it is necessary to involve the theoretical and practical data received by other authors, to analyse conformity or discrepancy of own given results of other researchers, to give interpretation, to explain the received results. To do it it is expedient in the same sequence to what results in the text are presented. It provides symmetry and logic of a statement.

6. Work with the conceptual device of a problem

It is necessary to give special attention to a conceptual material (sometimes scientific concepts name keywords). Definition of the relation to concepts and knowledge of their scientific explanatory is significant, as will allow to use this or that concept unequivocally taking into account scientific interpretation. The exact manipulation the conceptual device of research raises scientifically-professional level of term paper. It means, something or other concept, which can be treated by different authors differently ("wide" and "narrow" senses) should in all text of term paper, from the beginning up to the end to have only one, value accurately defined by the author. The found definitions of concepts are fixed on separate cards, and are exposed to cogitative processing by means of operations of the analysis, comparison, classification, generalisation, etc.

Search of interpretation of concepts should be begun in following sources:

Encyclopaedias: special (on

Example, pedagogical, psychological, philosophical, etc.);

Explanatory dictionaries: the general (S.Ozhegova, V.Dalja, etc.) and special (for example, pedagogical, psychological, sociological, philosophical);

Tables of contents and indexes of the basic textbooks and monographies on a research theme.

It is the extremely important to remember necessity of unequivocal treatment key for the term paper of concepts given to a problem.

7. Studying and the analysis of the literature and documents on an investigated problem

In preparation of term paper the given kind of activity occupies one of leading places. It is extremely necessary and serves for acquaintance with the facts characterising history and a modern condition of a subject, helps to realise more deeply a problem, to reveal, its what parties a little or are not studied completely not.

Practice of a writing of the term papers, developed in the higher school of Russia shows, that for a review writing on a theme of research of a problem of term paper the optimal variant of-use not less than twenty sources.

The literature list (minimum) on a theme is offered the head. However, the student selects other literature independently.

B.S.wol and N.V.Volkova is allocated with three sources of the bibliographic information:

Primary (articles, monographies);

Secondary (bibliographic indexes, essay magazines);

Tertiary (reviews, directories).

E.V.Berezhnova by analogy to classification of the scientific information existing in computer science (primary, secondary, tertiary), recommends to students, in the course of information search to collect and process a material in the following hierarchy.

Records concern primary materials on bibliographic cards, extracts, direct citations, x-copies, microfilms, an alphabetic catalogue on a research problem etc. 

To secondary materials the records which are a product of analitiko-synthetic processing of the information, containing in one scientific document concern: plans (simple and difficult), the flowgraphs, independently made indexes, summaries, theses, essays etc.

The records generalising primary and secondary are considered as tertiary materials. They are presented in the form of the substantial review in which the knowledge received by the student of already known facts in a science is fixed, laws, theories, explanations on a research theme.

It is considered, that full enough information give:

«Book annals»;

The index «the Literature on psihologo-pedagogical sciences and national education»;

Magazine «psychology Questions», «history Questions», etc.;

Magazines «Practical chemist». «Psychological magazine», etc.;

The annotated indexes of the literature on psychology;

The scientifically-essay collection (a series: «Pedagogical psychology, age physiology, school hygiene, defectology»).

The thematic index of the published literature in last numbers of trade magazines;

Catalogues of libraries, footnotes and references in textbooks and monographies on a theme of term paper.

Besides, it is desirable to see magazines: "Pedagogics", "National education", «the formation World», "Master", etc. pedagogical magazines, and also the methodical magazines concerning a speciality. It is necessary to remember, that annually (in the end of a year) in last numbers of all magazines thematic indexes are printed. It is useful to remember regular reviews of the literature on a certain theme and it is desirable to use the given possibility always.

It is a lot of techniques of drawing up of bibliographies. Each researcher taking into account personal lines of mental properties (temperament, character etc.) personal features (working capacity, organisation, etc.), and also personal abilities chooses style of drawing up of bank of bibliographic data inherent personally in it. It can be: card files, extracts, envelopes, tablets etc. But at any variant important precisely to specify:

The author of the monography, the author or the editor of the book, article, the brochure;

The full and exact name, place and year of the edition;

The exact name of publishing house, volume, release or edition number.

1. V.M.Tehnologicheskie's monks of a basis of designing and designing of educational process. The monography. Volgograd. Change. 1995 with.

2. Motivation and psychological mechanisms of its formation. The monography. Novosibirsk: Publishing house NGPU, 2002. - 262 with.

3. Perception I.S.problem's ancestral lands of studying of mechanisms / Activity of the person: the Collection of proceedings. III.-Novosibirsk: Publishing house NGPU, 1998. - with. 48-63.

4. Potapov A.S.Nejropedagogichesky a substantiation of comfortable training of the child. The monography. - Novosibirsk. Publishing house NiPkiPrO. - 404 with.

Primary acquaintance with primary sources should deduce the student on prospective answers of questions: about a problematics; about degree of disclosing of the given problem; about the maintenance of the investigated literature.

 

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As a result of information gathering on a research theme following data (as it is specified in I.V.Usachyov, I.I.Iljasova's publications) (Usachyov to I.V.Iljasov, 1080) should be received:

Who and where (what researches, and in what centres of science) already worked and works?

Where results of this work (in what sources) are published?

In what particularly they consist?

In the course of acquaintance with primary sources it is necessary to conduct records. They are conducted under the form any way and variously, but under the maintenance should be on the read text. Thus it is necessary to remember, that all citations assumed for use should be written down precisely, literally and with full references on a source. It is useful there and then on fields, to an underside of sheet or a card to write down the thoughts, the comments which have arisen in the course of perusal of the studied primary source. It is desirable to have a rough variant of the plan of term paper. For each section of term paper to get folders and to focus an investigated bibliographic material in each folder. www.cursovaya.narod.ru

It is very important to understand following questions:

By whom and what researches are executed on the given theme;

Where these results are published;

In what it is concrete these results consist.

It is not less important to realise the basic approaches and the points of view, concepts, theoretical positions, axioms, postulates and the basic conclusions. Their depth, many-sided nature and diversity or an innuendo, and it is possible also superficiality.

Approximate structure of term paper.

Term paper has the following approximate structure: the title page; a table of contents; introduction; the basic part (the basic part can include two - the first chapter and the chapter the second, and it can sometimes include three heads); the conclusion; the bibliography; the appendix.

The title page. It is made out taking into account certain requirements in conformity of the mentioned below sample.

For example, the title page of term paper on economy:

The Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation

The Perm state university

Ivanov Konstantin Sergeevich

The student 3 courses of faculty of economy

Formation of system of short-term stimulation of sales

The supervisor of studies:

Petrov Galina Dmitrievna

As we see, above - the educational institution and chair name. In the middle of sheet are written: a surname, a name, a patronymic of the executor and faculty. On the centre - a theme of term paper. More low, on the right, - a surname, a name, a patronymic of the supervisor of studies. Below - year of a writing of term paper.

For example, the title page of term paper on English language:

The Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation

The Arkhangelsk state university

Chair of English language

Dementyev Irina Jurevna

The student 4 courses of faculty of foreign languages

Comparison of phraseological systems of English and Russian of languages

The supervisor of studies

Grigoriev Anton Semenovich

Table of contents. The table of contents as a part of structure of term paper can have the name - the maintenance. It is made out taking into account certain requirements, in conformity of the mentioned below sample.

For example, the sample of registration of a table of contents of term paper on a theme "Budgetary proficiency and methods of its execution":

1. Budgetary system of the Russian Federation 5

1.1. Concept of the budget. The basic lines of budgetary system 5

1.2. Principles of budgetary system 11

2. The analysis of budgetary proficiency and methods of its distribution 16

2.1. The analysis of dynamics of the state budget 16

2.2. The analysis of a budgetary situation and its influence on budgetary proficiency 20

2.3. The analysis of budgetary proficiency in the Russian Federation 27

3. Ways of perfection of budgetary process 31

The conclusion 37

The list of the literature 40

As we see, in the maintenance or a table of contents the list of heads, paragraphs, points and subparagraphs of term paper, with instructions of pages is consistently stated. They should be: are logically built and consecutive; precisely to correspond to the maintenance of term paper; short and accurate.

Introduction. In this part the urgency and the importance of term paper reveals. The basic characteristics of term paper - a problem, the purpose, object, a subject, problems, a hypothesis are defined. The characteristic of methods of research, the organisation of skilled-experimental work is given. Novelty of the given term paper is stated.

The basic part of term paper includes some points of the plan. These are heads. Them can be two. In this case heads are distributed in a following order:

The first chapter gives a theoretical substantiation of a theme. In it following questions reveal:

1. Question history.

2. The theory of an investigated question.

3. Theoretical (in the field of psychology and in the field of pedagogics)

Bases of the decision of a theme.

4. The review of a modern condition of a studied subject in the psihologo-pedagogical literature, in practical psychology and student teaching.

5. The critical analysis of the literature,

6. The analysis of a position of authors.

7. Methods, the organisations and results of independently carried out fragment of research.

The chapter the second opens the maintenance and a technique of skilled work. In it following questions reveal:

1. The characteristic of abilities, skills (level of development) of examinees (on materials of ascertaining inspection).

2. The description of skilled work, the maintenance and logic of skilled work, record of inspections, selection of games, exercises, tasks, employment etc.

3. The analysis of results of skilled work.

But there can be three heads. In this case: the second chapter moves on the third, and instead of it the new chapter (it will be - the second) joins. In it as, a rule, conceptual substantiations of an object of research are considered.

The conclusion. In it work results, the major conclusions to which the author has come contain; their practical importance, possibility of introduction of results of work and the further prospects of research of a theme are specified. Conclusions should correspond to problems of term paper. Recommendations about use of results of research are formulated.

The bibliography - the list of the used literature. The bibliography is made out according to requirements STATE THAT. For example:

1. Abulhanova-Slavskaja K.A., Yeliseyev V. A. Problems of research of individual consciousness//Psychological magazine, 1991. ?4. S.27-40.

2. Arhangelskij S.I., Mikheyev V. I. Theoretical bases of the scientific organisation of educational process in the higher school. - 1976.

3. Ganzen V. A, Balin V. D. The theory and methodology of psychological research. Practical guidance: SPb.; 1991.

4. A voice of J. Statistical methods on pedagogics and psychology.: progress, 1976.

The appendix. It can be reports of inspection of examinees, essays and plans of different forms of work with examinees, texts of literary works, an illustrative material, drawings of examinees, questionnaires of examinees, teachers, parents, etc.

Registration of term paper

Term paper, taking into account the developed practice, on volume should make 25-30 pages printed on the machine (computer). Registration of term paper and by hand is supposed, but record should be accurate and legible. At printing of the manuscript the test should be on one party of a standard sheet of a paper (210 ? 300 or 210 ? 297 mm.) through two intervals. A font large, black and accurate. GOST defines following requirements to the manuscript: the quantity of lines on each sheet should not exceed 30, and it is necessary to a line to 60 signs (including blanks between words and punctuation marks). It is necessary to observe fields: at the left - 3 see, on the right - 1 see, from above 2 see, from below 2,5 the Text see is printed with paragraphs (5 blows of a typewriter). Headings and subtitles separate from the basic text from above and from below a blank in three intervals and are printed by lower case letters. All pages should be numbered.

It is necessary to observe the standard rules of citing, quoting citations and specifying in a footnote a surname, the initials of the author, the source name, a place and year of the edition, page.

Term paper should be written logically consistently, a literary language.

At a writing of term paper scientific style of the statement, differing is used by use of special terminology, severity and efficiency. It is necessary to remember, that the material should be stated short, without detailed retelling of separate primary sources. It is necessary to remember, that allocate those aspects which are of interest and are interconnected with a problem of term paper. It is useful to enrich the maintenance of the text examples from practice, but not to take a great interest and not to reduce term paper to the analysis of a state of affairs in practice short.

It is not recommended to conduct a statement from the first person of a singular: «I observed», «I consider», «in my opinion», etc. it is more correct to use a pronoun "we", but it is desirable to manage and without it. Turns with preservation of the first person of plural in which the pronoun "we" is excluded are supposed, i.e. phrases are under construction with the use of words we "observe", we "establish", we "have". It is possible to use expressions: "in our opinion", «in our opinion», however it is more preferable to write «according to the author» (term paper) or to express the same thought in the impersonal form: «studying of economic experience testifies that....», «on the basis of the executed analysis it is possible to confirm....», «the carried out researches have confirmed....», Etc.

In term paper the unity of style of a statement should be observed, spelling, syntactic and stylistic literacy according to norms of modern Russian is provided.

Protection of term paper.

Protection of term paper passes openly. Protection procedure includes:

1. The report of the student under the maintenance of term paper, within no more than ten minutes. The given report-message includes a problem condition, results of skilled-experimental work (if it was spent), conclusions and offers, research prospects;

2. Questions to the student on a theme of a problem of term paper, from present and answers to them.

3. Performance of the supervisor of studies about a course and quality of performance of work.

4. Estimation exhibiting for the performed work.

The best term papers, passed preprotection, are represented to students on traditional student's conference.

In a total estimation the head of term paper considers not only definitive result, but also degree of independence of the student that is marked in the review.

The review of term paper reflects:

- A theme urgency:

- Depth of studying of the special literature;

- Objectivity of methods of research and reliability of results;

- Validity of conclusions;

- Style and work registration;

- Offers and conclusions.

Following the results of protection for term paper the differentiated estimation in the test book of the trained is exposed.

Term paper comes back to the student for continuation of research which can become a basis for the future research paper. The best term papers can be left in a methodical office as samples for students.

Criteria of an estimation of term paper

It is "perfectly exposed for term paper, in which:

1. The basic literature on a problem is used.

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2. The theoretical substantiation of a vital topic and the analysis of the best practices of work is given.

3. Application of scientific techniques and the best practices in the work with examinees is shown, own experience illustrated by various evident materials is generalised, conclusions are drawn and practical recommendations are given.

4. Work is irreproachable concerning registration (spelling, style, citations, references etc.).

5. All stages are executed in time. It is "well exposed in case:

1. The basic literature on a theme (methodical and scientific) is used.

2. The theoretical substantiation and the analysis of the best practices of work is given.

3. All stages are executed in time.

4. Work is correctly issued.

5. The personal operational experience, application of scientific researches and the work best practices is insufficiently described. It is "well exposed:

1. The bibliography is limited.

2. There is no due analysis of the literature on a problem.

3. It is well generalised, own operational experience.

4. Registration of work the correct.

5. The most part is executed in time.

The subjects of term papers are connected with the basic specifications of a training course of an educational institution. Themes of term papers, as a rule, are defined and affirm on faculty meeting of psychology and are brought to the notice of students. The option of a theme of work is represented to students. The student has the right to offer a theme with a necessary substantiation of expediency of its working out. At a choice of a theme the student should start with interests and propensities, objective possibilities.

Themes of term papers can be defined and other ways:

1. Under the initiative and but to the offer of the teacher conducting research work on a certain problem. The teacher can include in structure of developers and students, having offered them for creative search the list of concrete themes.

2. At a personal choice of a theme the student when the student chooses a theme corresponding to its interest.

3. At the personal desire of the student directed on overcoming of problems or difficulties, arising in its practical activities (before receipt in high school or in the course of training in high school).

4. As a result of acquaintance with the special literature in studied area and periodic trade papers.

In all cases to an independent choice of a theme can, promote the receptions, helping to choose a research theme. Among them:

Repetition before the executed researches with use of other technique;

Acquaintance with the special literature and periodic trade papers;

Check of one of the hypotheses which have been put forward, but not checked up by scientists;

Choice of a theme close to a problematics, before the executed researches, with use of new, more perfect methods;

At a choice of a theme for the student-researcher are extremely necessary:

Meetings with the teacher for finding-out of actual problems in studied areas;

Consultations of leading scientists for revealing few the studied problems and the questions having an actual meaning;

Viewing of state-of-the-art reviews of achievements of the science made leading experts (in the end of such reviews unresolved problems are often specified);

The concrete subjects of term papers should meet following requirements:

To correspond to problems of preparation of experts;

To consider directions and a problematics of modern scientific researches;

To attach students to work on problems which are investigated by separate teachers and collective of chair of psychology as a whole;

To consider various interests of students in studied area (theories, positions, hypotheses, discussions etc.), and also results of work in a scientific student's society;

To develop actual problems of education and training of children.

The theme of term paper should be actual and correspond to a modern level of development of a science and practice. The theme urgency is defined by problems of perfection of work in studied area.

Organizational-research activity on preparation, a writing and registration the course 

For work on gathering, sorting and preparation of a necessary information material, on the organisation of skilled-experimental and research work; the analysis and generalisation, and also a writing and registration of term paper for the student the supervisor of studies from among teachers of high school is fixed. The supervisor of studies is fixed by corresponding documents to the student. Ethical standards and rules of the teacher and the student to be mutually precautionary, polite, tactful and mutually betrayed in the personal plan, yes if they disperse in ideas, the concept and methodology of an investigated problem.

After the theme of term paper is chosen and co-ordinated with the supervisor of studies, the planned schedule in which are defined is made: stages, methods, a course of skilled-experimental work; character and an experiment kind, and also terms of performance of principal views of activity.

The plan is the basic document. It affirms managing chair. Reports of the supervisor of studies and the student can be heard of a course of its performance.

Scheduling assumes deep and concrete knowledge of basic scientifically-methodological base of psychology: methodology, main principles of psychology, the basic methodological principles. Thus:

1. Methodology consideration in interrelation with methods and research techniques.

2. A support on main principles of psychology: a determinism, unity and consciousness of activity, development.

3. The account and orientation to the basic methodological principles, as necessity of observance at any method:

The method should start with dialektiko-materialistic representation about an object of science, reflect its specificity;

The scientific method, both psychology, and pedagogics should be objective;

Observance of a genetic (evolutionary) principle;

Necessity of scientific generalisations taking into account individual distinctions.

Research planning assumes:

Selection and approbation of methods and techniques.

Definition of a place of research. It should be isolated from external hindrances (at least, these influences it are necessary for considering), to meet sanitary-and-hygienic and engineering-psychological requirements, i.e. to provide certain comfort and easy working conditions.

Research hardware. It should correspond to the solved problems, all course of research and level of the analysis of received results.

Selection of examinees, thus it is desirable to provide their qualitative uniformity. 

Working out (drawing up) of the instruction of research. It should be accurate, short, unequivocal.

Definition both under the form, and under the maintenance of an order of written fixing of results of research. The report should be simultaneously hollow and purposeful (selective).

Processing of results of research is a quantitative both qualitative analysis and synthesis of the data received during research.

As rod element of the plan stages of performance of term paper act. Taking into account the developed practice, as a rule, it is allocated four stages.

Theoretical methods: studying and the analysis of the literature and documents; the analysis of an experimental material, generalisation.

Empirical methods: supervision, conversation, the test, studying of products of activity, the questionnaire, studying of an operational experience of the practical psychologist, skilled pedagogical work, experiment.

Besides, there are also other methods. So, for example, methods: a modelling method, a generalisation method, conversation. We will briefly review each of them:

The modelling method is a reproduction of characteristics of some object on other object specially created for their studying. At the heart of it analogy reception lays. The modelling method can be used at designing of teaching and educational process or its fragments, at development of a working hypothesis. With the help «models - hypotheses» mechanisms of communications between elements of studied process reveal, recommendations about its perfection are created.

Generalisation method. The given method is used at different investigation phases and allows to draw conclusions by results of each of them and work as a whole.

Conversation (with children, teachers, parents). Are used for studying of statement of process of training and for finding-out of problems on a research course. Results of conversations are carefully fixed. The conversation is adjoined by methods of interview and questioning which are described and join in the work text.

Stages of performance of term paper assume a logic order and interrelation of skilled-experimental or research work. The analysis of the developed practice shows three stages as the most rational variant.

The first stage - preparatory. Definition of a problem of research. Studying of a condition of a problem: introspection of, the experience, the knowledge on the given problem; studying and the analysis of the special methodical literature. A formulation of a working hypothesis, the purpose and problems of course research. Technique working out.

The second stage - gathering of the fact sheet. Studying and the literature analysis under the question theory; working out of the plan of experimentally-skilled work, the maintenance and a technique of ascertaining experiment, offers on optimisation of a technique of training and education of children, their studying. Carrying out of skilled work on check of a working hypothesis and offers; supervision and their fixing; the analysis of results of skilled work; a formulation of conclusions and recommendations.

The third stage - quantitative and qualitative data processing of research. Definition of average sizes, measures of dispersion of data, factors of correlation, etc., construction of schedules.

The fourth stage - interpretation of data and a formulation of conclusions. Registration of term paper: configuration and a writing of texts of introduction, heads and paragraphs, the conclusion; drawing up of lists of the literature, an illustrative material, appendices; registration of tables of contents and the title page; schematic modelling of the logic maintenance of all work.

In term paper set of different theoretical and empirical methods of research is used. Thereupon, there is a necessity to stop on some criteria of a choice of methods:

Adequacy to object, subject and research problems;

Scientific validity;

Conformity to the logic of research;

Orientation on all-round and harmonious development of the person of the examinee;

Interrelation with other methods in uniform methodical system.

It is possible to carry variants to the basic methods of scientific research on B.G.Ananevu and variants on B.S.Volkovu and N.V.Volkovoj. A variant on B.G.Ananevu. Their four groups of methods (Ananev B.G., 1976):

The first group - organizational methods. They include a comparative method (comparison of various groups on age, activity etc.); a method (repeated inspections of the same indicators throughout the long period of time); a complex method (representatives of different sciences participate in research; thus, as a rule, one object study different means. Researches such allow to establish communications and dependences between the phenomena of different type, for example, between physiological, psychological and social development of the person);

The second group - the empirical methods including: supervision and introspection; experimental methods, psychodiagnostic methods (tests, questionnaires, questionnaires, interview, conversation), the analysis of products of activity, biographic methods;

The third group - the methods of data processing including: quantitative (statistical) and qualitative (differentiation of a material on groups, the analysis) methods;

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The fourth group - the methods including genetic (the material analysis in the plan for development with allocation from efficient phases, stages, the critical moments, etc.) and structural (establishes structural communications between all characteristics of the person) methods.

Variant on B.S.Volkovu and N.V.Volkovoj. They subdivide methods on two groups: theoretical and empirical (practical) (Volkov B.S., Volkova N.V., 2002).

4. Skilled-experimental work

Skilled-experimental work - a method of change of deliberate changes in the educational and educational process, calculated on reception of educational and educational effect, with the subsequent check.

Skilled-experimental work is means of check of a hypothesis. It acts as an experiment version.

Skilled-experimental work is described in term paper. The detailed characteristic of examinees, age, quantity is given, the material used in skilled work is described. If it represents the image of subjects it is inserted into the test or the appendix. The equipment Is underlined (devices, equipment) were used. It is necessary to describe all course of work, including the instruction which was given to examinees. It is necessary to note, what way processed the obtained data.

Results of skilled-experimental work can be presented in tables, schedules, diagrammes etc. To tables, drawings, diagrammes should make signatures - short and clear. Under drawing to place explanatories, decoding of reductions. All illustrations need to be carried out accurately. Here it is possible to result endurances from verbal reports.

5. Psihologo-pedagogical experiment (for course on pedagogics, psychology, sociology and other humanities)

Psihologo-pedagogical experiment as the method, is directed on hypothesis check, an establishment not only relationships of cause and effect in studied object, but also on revealing of the mechanism of action of these communications. In term paper actions of these communications are used.

The basic methodological problem of psihologo-pedagogical experiment - hypothesis finding-out (has proved to be true or has not proved to be true).

During psihologo-pedagogical experiment it is necessary to involve the theoretical and practical data received by other authors, to analyse conformity or discrepancy of own given results of other researchers, to give interpretation, to explain the received results. To do it it is expedient in the same sequence to what results in the text are presented. It provides symmetry and logic of a statement.

6. Work with the conceptual device of a problem

It is necessary to give special attention to a conceptual material (sometimes scientific concepts name keywords). Definition of the relation to concepts and knowledge of their scientific explanatory is significant, as will allow to use this or that concept unequivocally taking into account scientific interpretation. The exact manipulation the conceptual device of research raises scientifically-professional level of term paper. It means, something or other concept, which can be treated by different authors differently ("wide" and "narrow" senses) should in all text of term paper, from the beginning up to the end to have only one, value accurately defined by the author. The found definitions of concepts are fixed on separate cards, and are exposed to cogitative processing by means of operations of the analysis, comparison, classification, generalisation, etc.

Search of interpretation of concepts should be begun in following sources:

Encyclopaedias: special (on

Example, pedagogical, psychological, philosophical, etc.);

Explanatory dictionaries: the general (S.Ozhegova, V.Dalja, etc.) and special (for example, pedagogical, psychological, sociological, philosophical);

Tables of contents and indexes of the basic textbooks and monographies on a research theme.

It is the extremely important to remember necessity of unequivocal treatment key for the term paper of concepts given to a problem.

7. Studying and the analysis of the literature and documents on an investigated problem

In preparation of term paper the given kind of activity occupies one of leading places. It is extremely necessary and serves for acquaintance with the facts characterising history and a modern condition of a subject, helps to realise more deeply a problem, to reveal, its what parties a little or are not studied completely not.

Practice of a writing of the term papers, developed in the higher school of Russia shows, that for a review writing on a theme of research of a problem of term paper the optimal variant of-use not less than twenty sources.

The literature list (minimum) on a theme is offered the head. However, the student selects other literature independently.

B.S.wol and N.V.Volkova is allocated with three sources of the bibliographic information:

Primary (articles, monographies);

Secondary (bibliographic indexes, essay magazines);

Tertiary (reviews, directories).

E.V.Berezhnova by analogy to classification of the scientific information existing in computer science (primary, secondary, tertiary), recommends to students, in the course of information search to collect and process a material in the following hierarchy.

Records concern primary materials on bibliographic cards, extracts, direct citations, x-copies, microfilms, an alphabetic catalogue on a research problem etc. 

To secondary materials the records which are a product of analitiko-synthetic processing of the information, containing in one scientific document concern: plans (simple and difficult), the flowgraphs, independently made indexes, summaries, theses, essays etc.

The records generalising primary and secondary are considered as tertiary materials. They are presented in the form of the substantial review in which the knowledge received by the student of already known facts in a science is fixed, laws, theories, explanations on a research theme.

It is considered, that full enough information give:

«Book annals»;

The index «the Literature on psihologo-pedagogical sciences and national education»;

Magazine «psychology Questions», «history Questions», etc.;

Magazines «Practical chemist». «Psychological magazine», etc.;

The annotated indexes of the literature on psychology;

The scientifically-essay collection (a series: «Pedagogical psychology, age physiology, school hygiene, defectology»).

The thematic index of the published literature in last numbers of trade magazines;

Catalogues of libraries, footnotes and references in textbooks and monographies on a theme of term paper.

Besides, it is desirable to see magazines: "Pedagogics", "National education", «the formation World», "Master", etc. pedagogical magazines, and also the methodical magazines concerning a speciality. It is necessary to remember, that annually (in the end of a year) in last numbers of all magazines thematic indexes are printed. It is useful to remember regular reviews of the literature on a certain theme and it is desirable to use the given possibility always.

It is a lot of techniques of drawing up of bibliographies. Each researcher taking into account personal lines of mental properties (temperament, character etc.) personal features (working capacity, organisation, etc.), and also personal abilities chooses style of drawing up of bank of bibliographic data inherent personally in it. It can be: card files, extracts, envelopes, tablets etc. But at any variant important precisely to specify:

The author of the monography, the author or the editor of the book, article, the brochure;

The full and exact name, place and year of the edition;

The exact name of publishing house, volume, release or edition number.

1. V.M.Tehnologicheskie's monks of a basis of designing and designing of educational process. The monography. Volgograd. Change. 1995 with.

2. Motivation and psychological mechanisms of its formation. The monography. Novosibirsk: Publishing house NGPU, 2002. - 262 with.

3. Perception I.S.problem's ancestral lands of studying of mechanisms / Activity of the person: the Collection of proceedings. III.-Novosibirsk: Publishing house NGPU, 1998. - with. 48-63.

4. Potapov A.S.Nejropedagogichesky a substantiation of comfortable training of the child. The monography. - Novosibirsk. Publishing house NiPkiPrO. - 404 with.

Primary acquaintance with primary sources should deduce the student on prospective answers of questions: about a problematics; about degree of disclosing of the given problem; about the maintenance of the investigated literature.

As a result of information gathering on a research theme following data (as it is specified in I.V.Usachyov, I.I.Iljasova's publications) (Usachyov to I.V.Iljasov, 1080) should be received:

Who and where (what researches, and in what centres of science) already worked and works?

Where results of this work (in what sources) are published?

In what particularly they consist?

In the course of acquaintance with primary sources it is necessary to conduct records. They are conducted under the form any way and variously, but under the maintenance should be on the read text. Thus it is necessary to remember, that all citations assumed for use should be written down precisely, literally and with full references on a source. It is useful there and then on fields, to an underside of sheet or a card to write down the thoughts, the comments which have arisen in the course of perusal of the studied primary source. It is desirable to have a rough variant of the plan of term paper. For each section of term paper to get folders and to focus an investigated bibliographic material in each folder. www.cursovaya.narod.ru

It is very important to understand following questions:

By whom and what researches are executed on the given theme;

Where these results are published;

In what it is concrete these results consist.

It is not less important to realise the basic approaches and the points of view, concepts, theoretical positions, axioms, postulates and the basic conclusions. Their depth, many-sided nature and diversity or an innuendo, and it is possible also superficiality.

Approximate structure of term paper.

Term paper has the following approximate structure: the title page; a table of contents; introduction; the basic part (the basic part can include two - the first chapter and the chapter the second, and it can sometimes include three heads); the conclusion; the bibliography; the appendix.

The title page. It is made out taking into account certain requirements in conformity of the mentioned below sample.

For example, the title page of term paper on economy:

The Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation

The Perm state university

Ivanov Konstantin Sergeevich

The student 3 courses of faculty of economy

Formation of system of short-term stimulation of sales

The supervisor of studies:

Petrov Galina Dmitrievna

As we see, above - the educational institution and chair name. In the middle of sheet are written: a surname, a name, a patronymic of the executor and faculty. On the centre - a theme of term paper. More low, on the right, - a surname, a name, a patronymic of the supervisor of studies. Below - year of a writing of term paper.

For example, the title page of term paper on English language:

The Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation

The Arkhangelsk state university

Chair of English language

Dementyev Irina Jurevna

The student 4 courses of faculty of foreign languages

Comparison of phraseological systems of English and Russian of languages

The supervisor of studies

Grigoriev Anton Semenovich

Table of contents. The table of contents as a part of structure of term paper can have the name - the maintenance. It is made out taking into account certain requirements, in conformity of the mentioned below sample.

For example, the sample of registration of a table of contents of term paper on a theme "Budgetary proficiency and methods of its execution":

1. Budgetary system of the Russian Federation 5

1.1. Concept of the budget. The basic lines of budgetary system 5

1.2. Principles of budgetary system 11

2. The analysis of budgetary proficiency and methods of its distribution 16

2.1. The analysis of dynamics of the state budget 16

2.2. The analysis of a budgetary situation and its influence on budgetary proficiency 20

2.3. The analysis of budgetary proficiency in the Russian Federation 27

3. Ways of perfection of budgetary process 31

The conclusion 37

The list of the literature 40

As we see, in the maintenance or a table of contents the list of heads, paragraphs, points and subparagraphs of term paper, with instructions of pages is consistently stated. They should be: are logically built and consecutive; precisely to correspond to the maintenance of term paper; short and accurate.

Introduction. In this part the urgency and the importance of term paper reveals. The basic characteristics of term paper - a problem, the purpose, object, a subject, problems, a hypothesis are defined. The characteristic of methods of research, the organisation of skilled-experimental work is given. Novelty of the given term paper is stated.

The basic part of term paper includes some points of the plan. These are heads. Them can be two. In this case heads are distributed in a following order:

The first chapter gives a theoretical substantiation of a theme. In it following questions reveal:

1. Question history.

2. The theory of an investigated question.

3. Theoretical (in the field of psychology and in the field of pedagogics)

Bases of the decision of a theme.

4. The review of a modern condition of a studied subject in the psihologo-pedagogical literature, in practical psychology and student teaching.

5. The critical analysis of the literature,

6. The analysis of a position of authors.

7. Methods, the organisations and results of independently carried out fragment of research.

The chapter the second opens the maintenance and a technique of skilled work. In it following questions reveal:

1. The characteristic of abilities, skills (level of development) of examinees (on materials of ascertaining inspection).

2. The description of skilled work, the maintenance and logic of skilled work, record of inspections, selection of games, exercises, tasks, employment etc.

3. The analysis of results of skilled work.

But there can be three heads. In this case: the second chapter moves on the third, and instead of it the new chapter (it will be - the second) joins. In it as, a rule, conceptual substantiations of an object of research are considered.

The conclusion. In it work results, the major conclusions to which the author has come contain; their practical importance, possibility of introduction of results of work and the further prospects of research of a theme are specified. Conclusions should correspond to problems of term paper. Recommendations about use of results of research are formulated.

The bibliography - the list of the used literature. The bibliography is made out according to requirements STATE THAT. For example:

1. Abulhanova-Slavskaja K.A., Yeliseyev V. A. Problems of research of individual consciousness//Psychological magazine, 1991. ?4. S.27-40.

2. Arhangelskij S.I., Mikheyev V. I. Theoretical bases of the scientific organisation of educational process in the higher school. - 1976.

3. Ganzen V. A, Balin V. D. The theory and methodology of psychological research. Practical guidance: SPb.; 1991.

4. A voice of J. Statistical methods on pedagogics and psychology.: progress, 1976.

The appendix. It can be reports of inspection of examinees, essays and plans of different forms of work with examinees, texts of literary works, an illustrative material, drawings of examinees, questionnaires of examinees, teachers, parents, etc.

Registration of term paper

Term paper, taking into account the developed practice, on volume should make 25-30 pages printed on the machine (computer). Registration of term paper and by hand is supposed, but record s



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