The word "essay" occurs from Latin referre, meaning to "report,"inform", and has some values. The major importance of this word concerns to short of the maintenance of the book, article or any other work. To us other value of this word is more important - we will understand the theoretical work based on already known facts in which more or less full any theme reveals as the essay. Actually it is article, in the short form stating already known (published) data on the chosen theme, a subject, a direction. Therefore the essay assumes use of references.
Essays at school are for what purpose written?
· to Learn to work with the information: to collect a material (literature) on the given theme, to systematise, allocate the main thing, it is consecutive, logical to state a subject essence.
· Work on the essay allows to understand more deeply a theme, it is better to acquire it, develops skills of organisation and the purposefulness, necessary at studying of any subject.
To write the essay, it is necessary to choose a theme first of all. Choosing a theme, you should be guided, first, by, whether it is interesting to you, and whether you, secondly, can find the literature on this theme. Therefore do not hurry up: look, what literature is on a question of the house interesting you and that it is possible to find in library. By literature search thematic catalogues can help with library. Learn from the librarian as them to use. Taking the book which has interested you, first of all familiarise with the summary and a table of contents to learn, what questions in it are considered. The theme can be formulated differently: one formulations have very wide sense, for example, a theme "Mushrooms", others - narrower, for example "Mushrooms-parasites", or narrower: « Mushrooms - parasites of plants "," Edible fungi "," Poisonous mushrooms ». If the name having wide sense it is necessary to be guided by all-round coverage of a subject is chosen: to write about much, but it is short, not going into details, i.e. about the most important thing. If the theme is formulated narrowly besides data of the general character the essay can contain separate details.
Work on the essay
With what to begin? First of all, it is necessary to make the plan. At first draught, for itself, that the nobility about what and in what sequence to write. As an initial source of the information it is possible to take the school textbook. Familiarise with the maintenance of the books picked up by you and choose a material to which can add the textbook information. Thus, maybe, you will want to specify or change some the initial plan of the essay. In a general view the structure of any essay should be approximately following:
1. Introduction - a substantiation of an urgency (importance) of the chosen theme.
2. The basic part - a general characteristic, the description and the analysis of a subject (phenomenon), before-varitelnye conclusions.
3. The conclusion - definitive conclusions.
In any essay there should be "Introduction". It can be small and consist, for example, all of one paragraph, and can include and some paragraphs or even the whole page, and even it is more. If work small also introduction should not be big. Already the name has undressed "Introduction", sense of the word, speaks about necessity to show the ropes about what speech in the essay will go. Here it is necessary to note, than the given theme is interesting or important, to allocate the basic questions which are supposed to be considered. For example, if you have chosen a theme "Mushrooms", it is possible to tell, that mushrooms are a kingdom of live organisms which have the features distinguishing them both from plants, and from animals and who play very important role in the nature (biosphere of the Earth). Means, the basic maintenance of the essay will be aimed at showing, than mushrooms differ from plants and from animals, and they play what role to the nature. Thus, in "Introduction" you result the most general data on a subject (problem) and speak about why this subject is important
The basic part
Here the detailed plan is necessary. It is necessary to consider carefully structure of this part, to build sequence of a statement that it has not turned out so, that you at first speak about one, then about the friend, the third, then come back again to the first, mention the third and the fourth and again something about the first - a word that was not in your statement of mess, confusions. At first it is necessary to give a general characteristic of a kingdom of mushrooms, to show their regular position in the wildlife world, to show, than they differ from the live organisms concerning other kingdoms. It is possible and to write down this point of the plan: «1. The General characteristic of a kingdom of mushrooms». Further it is necessary to tell about what mushrooms from the point of view of their structure happen. And we will write down: « 2. A structure of mushrooms. Features of a structure of a mushroom cage ». Here it is necessary not to forget to tell about a structure and structure of a cellular cover of mushrooms, that is spare, than the cage of mushrooms differs from a cage of plants and animals and that at it the general with that and another. Now we pass to properties of mushrooms. You know, that we speak usually about eight properties of live organisms: a food, breath, allocation, growth, development, reproduction, movement and irritability. But not all live organisms necessarily should have all these properties. Whether there are among mushrooms predators who kill the victim? On all these questions you should answer in subsection (point)« Food of mushrooms ». Etc.
And now we will look, what plan at us has turned out for the basic part of the essay on a theme "Mushrooms":
1. A general characteristic of a kingdom of mushrooms.
2. A structure of mushrooms
3. Properties of mushrooms
§ a Food
4. Classification of mushrooms
5. A role of mushrooms in the nature and human life
We pass to a final part of the essay. Usually it and is called: "Conclusion", but can be called and in another way: "Conclusions", or even so: «the Conclusion and conclusions». In "introduction" the problem is depicted in general, in «the Basic part» everything is in detail described, that concerns this problem, the phenomenon, and now it is necessary to draw conclusions, i.e. is short to answer those questions which have been put in "introduction" and «the basic part». "Conclusion" is written by the continuous text in the form of narrative offers.
Conclusions are represented in the form of the separate points designated in figures, for example:
6. Mushrooms are a separate kingdom of live organisms which differ from plants and from animals.
Now we will talk about the latest, but very important section of the essay - about the bibliography, and is easier - about the literature used at a writing of the essay. This literature should be listed in the end of the essay in section which and is called: « The literature », or"Bibliography", or« the Used literature ». All books, textbooks, journal articles or newspaper notes which have been used as an information source, should be not simply listed, but on each of them the full bibliographic reference should be given. What is the bibliographic reference? It, figuratively speaking, the address, on which (article, a note) it is possible to find this book. It should contain a surname and the initials of the author, the full name of the book, an edition place (if it is Moscow it is written., if St.-Petersburg, - SPb., names of other cities are written completely, for example, Minsk), further after a colon is underlined publishing house, then through a comma year of the edition in figures without a writing of a word"year"and pages on which the used information is stated, for example, with. 8-11 (pay attention: the word"page"is not written completely, but only the letter"with"and a point).