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« HOW TO WRITE TERM PAPERHow to write the essay, research paper »
07.01.2011

WHAT IS THE TERM PAPER?

Term paper at historical faculty of St.Petersburg State University is the written author's work of the student devoted to a concrete historical theme which it carries out on 1-4 courses and 1-5 courses.

Term paper is study, during work over which the student should get and show following skills: - In the field of a source study - ability to select sources to date and classify them, to do the source description, to analyze a source, to take from it the information by means of various research techniques, ability to verify a source (that is to carry out the genetic analysis of an origin of data containing in it and to check up them on reliability); - In the field of a historiography - knowledge of the literature on histories of a studied question, its ability to classify, establish continuity of the points of view,  - In the field of the bibliography - ability to collect the literature and knowledge of rules of bibliographic registration of footnotes and the list of the used sources and the literature. 

Ideal to which it is necessary to aspire, the scientific kind of work of the student is: the new treatment, new hypotheses concerning already studied plots, research absolutely not studied introduction in a turn of the new neopublished sources, transfer and the analysis of little-known texts of a foreign extraction. Scientific work is characterised also by the greatest possible full account and the analysis of a historiography of a problem - both Russian, and foreign.

II. STAGES OF WORK ON THE COURSE 

1. A choice of the supervisor of studies and a work theme. On site page http://ist-slavbalkan.narod.ru/study/Exempla-kursovye.htm the student can familiarise with possible themes (samples that) term papers and interests of potential supervisors of studies. The student also can offer its interesting theme course which is not present in the list, but he all the same should choose the supervisor of studies who would agree to supervise over the selected theme. After a choice of a theme and the head the student should be to the head at o'clock of its consultations (the schedule see: <http://ist-slavbalkan.narod.ru/study/konsultacii-1-2006.htm>), to confirm theme choice, to stipulate its accurate information and to receive the task - scheduling, the literature list, to learn time of control appearances to the supervisor of studies etc.

2. Themes of term papers of students of 1-2 courses affirm the supervisor of studies. Themes of term papers of students of 3-4 (5) courses affirm on representation of supervisors of studies on faculty meeting in October. Hence, to choose a theme and the head and to meet the head on consultation the student should not later than the middle of October.

3. Change of a theme and transition from one supervisor of studies to another are supposed only on the termination of academic year and estimation reception for term paper of the last year. For the students who have passed to 2nd and 3rd course, there are no restrictions for transition. 

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Transition of students of 4-5 courses and 5-6 also can be only in unusual cases, in an individual order only with the permission of managing chair. The student should submit a written statement managing chair and to receive the preliminary consent of the new supervisor of studies to accept the student. Disagreements of basic character (as scientific, conceptual, and personal) with the former supervisor of studies, got such sharpness that exclude the further scientific management can be a good reason for transition. 

Are not good reasons for transition: 

1) desire which has suddenly arisen at the student to change the subject on "more interesting". With «an interesting theme» it is necessary to be defined to 3 courses;

2) suddenly arisen claims of the student 4-5 courses to the supervisor of studies at whom he wrote term paper on 1-3 courses, that the supervisor of studies «badly works» with the student, the pupil «does not suit style of a scientific management» etc. With a choice approaching on style and methods of work of the supervisor of studies the student should be defined on 2-3 courses when transitions are not forbidden. If it has not made it to 4 courses to the student can be given up in transition from one supervisor of studies to another.

The given restrictions speak that the writing of qualitative research paper assumes work on it within several years when term papers, since the first course, are separate parts of research paper. The Student - the "deserter" selecting a theme of the diploma one year-two before the termination of HIGH SCHOOL and in time to write on it only one course on 4th course (or not in time absolutely not any at transition to a last year), by definition cannot write for a year-two the qualitative diploma (on a good or excellent estimation), that "beats" both on the student, and on chair. Therefore it is necessary to concern responsibly a choice of a theme of term paper and the supervisor of studies on 1-3 courses. 

4. Qualitative work on the course assumes frequent consultations at the supervisor of studies and obligatory representation of a draught copy. The draught copy should be presented the supervisor of studies not later than April, 20th.

5. The clean copy of term paper surrenders on chair in an interval between May, 5th and 15. On representation of the supervisor of studies (if he considers term paper corresponding to the necessary requirements) it is put forward on protection before the cathedral commission. Members of the cathedral commission study term papers BEFORE protection. INFRINGEMENT of TERMS of DELIVERY of WORK ON CHAIR, IT LATER REPRESENTATION CAN CAUSE ESTIMATION DECREASE FOR TERM PAPER.Protection of term papers pass during the period from May, 20 till May, 30th. In case of infringement of these terms by the student protection of term paper is transferred on additional session in September, and in the sheet offset on term paper is not exposed.

6. Protection of term paper consists of representation of the clean copy of term paper of the cathedral commission, short performance of the student (7-10 minutes) on a theme of term paper. In performance the theme should be characterised, the purposes and the problems put and solved within the limits of given work are specified, is told about sources, the historiography is characterised, the work structure is told, the basic results and conclusions to which the student has come are shown, their originality and novelty (if is available) is underlined. The student also should explain a place given course in the prospective degree project. 

After that act with a short oral response the supervisor of studies and term paper from among members of the cathedral commission. 

The decision on an estimation is accepted by the cathedral commission the majority of voices without presence of students in the end of all protection appointed for this day. After that students are caused in an audience, it estimations appear. Clean copies of term papers surrender and stored on chair within 3 years.

7. An estimation on term paper the cathedral commission which estimates the presented term paper, exposes an oral response of the supervisor of studies, performance of the student on protection, character and level of its answers to questions on protection. Criteria of an estimation the following:  

- "Perfectly": a theme the optimum quantity of sources and the literature is completely opened, used, the author has shown high level of the source study and historiographic analysis, possession of research techniques. Term paper is correctly issued. Protection has passed successfully, the author has substantially acted and has answered the put questions;

- "Well": the theme as a whole is opened, however work has lacks in the field of the source study and historiographic analysis, in the spent research. Protection has passed unpersuasively, the author has not managed to answer some question. There are errors in work registration;

 

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- "Well": work dependent, has frankly essay character, that is is copied from several books to the minimum author's work with sources or in general without this. The number of sources, articles and books to which the author has addressed, is obviously not enough for qualitative disclosing of a theme. Unpersuasive protection. Absence of answers to the majority of questions of the commission. Errors in work registration. 

The estimation "unsatisfactorily" on protection, as a rule, is not put: so weak works simply are not issued on protection by the supervisor of studies which obliges the student within the limits of additional session to finish work level at least to satisfactory".

However estimation exhibiting "unsatisfactorily" on protection is possible, if rough infringements, for example, the fact of direct plagiarism when the course is completely written off with course «the senior companions», from any book (with copying of references to editions which the student actually and did not see) when course it is taken from the Internet or an established fact of its order for a writing to the foreign person are established. Differently, the estimation is "unsatisfactorily put, if the student on protection tries to give out another's work for the.

8. Formal requirements to registration of term paper: 

- Volume not less than 20-30 pages of format ?4 on 1-2 courses and 30-50 pages on 3-4 courses;

- Course it is represented on white sheets of format ?4 in a folder. Listing of a computer set on one party of each sheet (fonts is desirable: Times New Roman, Arial, Journal, Baltica, Garamond), a size 14, an interval one-and-a-half, formatting on width, numbering continuous. Fields: at the left 3 sm, on the right 1,5 sm, top of 2 sm, a bottom - 2 see Numbering of pages is obligatory;

- In case of impossibility to present computer listing the course is printed on a typewriter or accurately corresponds by hand with observance of the above-named requirements to intervals and fields;

- Course are represented only on the paper carrier, electronic copies are not accepted and are not considered.

III. STRUCTURE OF TERM PAPER.

Term paper consists of following obligatory parts: 

1) the title page; 

2) the Table of contents; 

3) Introduction; 

4) the basic text broken on the chapters and paragraphs;

5) the Conclusion; 

6) the List of the used sources and the literature. 

1) the Title page. The title page is the first sheet of term paper, but is not numbered. 

Registration of the title page for research and erm paper equally (the sample see:)

The ST.-PETERSBURG STATE UNIVERSITY Chair of history of the slavic and Balkan countries the Siege Slavs Thessaloniki (on «St. Dmitry's Miracles») Term paper Has executed HISTORICAL FACULTY: Ivanov A.V., the student 2 courses the Supervisor of studies: the senior lecturer of L. M.Arzhakova St.-Petersburg, 2006  

2) the Table of contents. The table of contents is located always on 2nd sheet of work. The second sheet and all subsequent sheets course - are numbered. 

The table of contents is made out as follows:   Table of contents

Introduction........................................... … 3

The chapter I [the name of the head]....................... … ….8 § 1. [The paragraph name].....................14 § 2. [The paragraph name].....................19

[And so on, if there are other paragraphs]  

The chapter II [the name of the head]...................... … ….25

[And so on, if there are other heads and paragraphs]  

The conclusion...................................... … … …. 30

The list of sources and the literature..................... … … ….33  

3) Introduction consists of following obligatory elements: 

- Short (no more 1st paragraph) the epoch characteristic in semantic and stylistic "coordination" with a work theme; 

- The formulation of the purpose of work (for example: «the work Purpose - studying« St. Dmitry's Miracles as historical source on military history of early Slavs »); 

- A substantiation of chronological and geographical frameworks of research; 

- Instructions on on what basis of sources term paper and the detailed characteristic of a source of base is written; 

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- The historiographic review (if at a work writing it is not provided the separate chapter devoted to the analysis of a historiography); 

- The description of structure of work (For example: «Work consists of the Introduction, four heads, the Conclusion and the List of the used sources and the literature. Chapter 1 is devoted... In the second chapter it is a question about...» Etc.) 

4) the Basic text. The basic text consists of heads who, in turn, can be broken into paragraphs. Each chapter and the paragraph should have number and the name. In the end of each chapter it is desirable to formulate conclusions under the head. How to write the basic text - the section IV see. 

5) the Conclusion. In the Conclusion researches are summed up and definitive conclusions (on the basis of conclusions in heads) are formulated. 

6) the List of the used sources and the literature. All sources and the researches used in given term paper are brought in the list of the used sources and the literature. It is forbidden to enter in the list names of works which the student himself did not read and in the course did not use, that is to copy footnotes from the read books. The list according to bibliographic STATE VOLUME (the section V see) is made out. 

Each part of term paper (the Table of contents, Introduction, heads, the Conclusion, the List of the used sources and the literature) begins with new sheet. The name of parts (including the word "Head", number of the head and its name) are written in the middle of the top line of new sheet. Paragraphs begin on the same sheet on which the previous text has ended; the badge "paragraph", number and the paragraph name is written in the middle of a line. 

IV. THE BASIC STAGES OF WORK ON THE COURSE. 

Work on the course composition develops of following basic stages: 

1) a theme and supervisor of studies choice (for students of 1 course) or the statement the supervisor of studies of a theme of term paper of current year (for students of 2-4 (5) courses) - not later than the middle of October.

2) consultation of the supervisor of studies, work scheduling - November-December.

2) work on texts of sources and studying of the research literature - November-April.

3) a writing of a draught copy course - March-April;

4) draught copy correction according to remarks of the supervisor of studies and a writing of a definitive variant of term paper - April - first half of May;

5) public protection of term paper (the end of May).

1) Scheduling of term paper. The plan of term paper either is given by the supervisor of studies, or made by the student; in the latter case, having made the plan, it is necessary to show to its supervisor of studies for the statement even prior to the beginning of work on the text. 

2) Work on texts of sources and studying of the research literature. At this stage there is a gathering of a material for the course. It is carried out in the form of extracts from sources and the literature. It is possible to do extracts by various ways. We offer the following technique: 

- Extracts become on single sheets; on each sheet one extract becomes only; 

- In the top left corner the reference to that is given, the extract whence is made. These references will be necessary that, during a writing of the text course, it was possible to make out footnotes, not addressing any more to the books read by you and articles; 

- In the top right corner the point of the plan of work (the head, the paragraph) which the given extract concerns is underlined. If the same phrase (fragment) of a source concerns at once two and more points of the plan, it is necessary to make some identical extracts, having specified for everyone corresponding point of the plan; 

- It is more expedient to do an extract in the form of the full citation, and then to underline the basic moments, the basic thought (thoughts), containing in this citation. 

After all extracts will be made, they should be grouped on points (to heads and paragraphs) the work plan. (Marks in the top right corner of each extract for this purpose became.) as a result of an extract on the first point will make one pile, on the second - another, etc. 

3) the Writing of a draught copy the course. The text of term paper is written on the basis of the made extracts: 

- Take all extracts concerning the chapter I, see them and make the working plan of the future chapter; 

- Spread out extracts according to this plan, in that sequence in which you will use them at a text writing; 

- Write the text of the head, confirming each thought taken from an extract, a reference to the source or research (copying in footnotes that is written down in the top left corner of each extract). 

The text of each of sections of term paper is in the same way written. 

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At a text writing do not abuse direct citations. It is better to state thought of a source the words (necessarily referring thus on a source), and to quote there are brightest "places" of a source. Such citations serve on the one hand as illustrations, and with another - bring, so to say, colour of an epoch in term paper. 

From the research literature the facts (referring to the book or article, whence you this fact took) are taken only unknown to you on a source and opinions of authors on this or that question are quoted. To copy from the literature the information which you should take from a source, it is forbidden. It attracts estimation decrease for term paper.

The draught copy of term paper is made out in the same way, as well as a definitive variant. A unique exception - in a draught copy deletions, corrections, inserts, inserts, etc. are resolved 

4) the Writing of a definitive variant the course. This stage of work consists that corrections are made to the text according to remarks of the supervisor of studies, and all composition is made a fair copy. 

V. BIBLIOGRAPHIC REGISTRATION OF TERM PAPER 

Registration of footnotes. 

References to used sources and the literature are an obligatory element of term paper. They become in the form of page footnotes and are located in the bottom of each page (so-called "word-per-word translation"). 

From the basic text of a footnote separate the horizontal line reaching approximately to the middle of a line. 

Numbering of footnotes - continuous. 

Footnotes should be issued in exact conformity with bibliographic requirements. 

Examples of registration of footnotes.(Pay attention to punctuation marks!) 

Derzhavin N.S.Ivan. A life and creativity sketch., 1952. ?.28. 

Jazhborovskaja I.S., Parsadanova V. S. Russia and Poland: the Syndrome of war of 1920, 2005. ?.162.

Source study of history of southern and western Slavs. The feudal period., 1998.

Russia, Poland, Germany in European and world politics. XVI-XX centuries., 2002.

Article in magazine or the collection; a source published in the collection: Monuments of writing of east Slavs in South slavic hand-written tradition XIII-XIV centuries//the Newsletter., 1991. ???.25. ?.95. 

(?????? - the International Association on studying and distribution of slavic cultures).

When you the first time refer to a source, the monography or article, in a footnote there should be a full reference: 

If you refer to a source, the monography or article in 2nd, 3rd etc. time, the footnote should be reduced. There are following rules of reduction of footnotes

The first footnote:. Political contacts between Russia and the Danube princedoms in first half XVII century//Communications of Russia with the people of Balkan peninsula. First half XVII century ?, 1990. S.71-77. (Further - ???????? L.E.political contacts …).The second and the subsequent footnotes: ???????? L.E.political contacts … ?.76. 

If you refer only to any one book or article of the same author in 2nd and subsequent references to it in a footnote the surname and the initials of the author are written, 

If in term paper it is used more than one work of one author to use "the Decree." It is impossible, as it will be not clear, you refer to which composition of the given author. Then it is necessary to apply the names described in point to each edition of a rule of reduction.

If on the same page you some times refer to any one edition the second and all subsequent references to it should look so successively: 

In the same place. (If refer to the same page, as in the previous footnote) 

In the same place. ?.57. 

3) Registration of the list of the used sources and the literature. 

The list has the following structure: 

- The neopublished sources; 

- The published sources; 

- The list of the literature published in Russian;

- The list of the literature published on foreign languages.

In the text these parts of the list of headings have no, and separate from each other an interval in one line. 

Sources listed in the list and the literature are not numbered. 

The neopublished sources take places in alphabetic order under names of storehouses (archives, departments of manuscripts, etc.). "In" each storehouse - on serial numbers of funds, inventories and affairs. 

The published sources take places in the list alphabetically. 

The literature list is under construction also in alphabetic order: on surnames of authors and names of works without the author. If some works of one author - in alphabetic order names on a surname of the given author are used: 

In each name of the list the total of pages of the book which you used, or numbers of pages which are occupied in magazine or the collection with the article used by you necessarily is underlined.

Apparently from the resulted examples if in the course article from magazine or the collection is used, in the list it is brought, instead of magazine or the collection. 

In the list of the used sources and literatures are not supposed the REDUCTIONS APPLIED In FOOTNOTES. 

It is desirable to specify publishing house or printing house where there was a book. It is resulted through a colon after an edition place:

References to the foreign literature are made out similarly:

Wyczanski A. Polska - Rzecza Pospolita szlachecka. 1454-1764. W., 1965. 

If a following reference on the same book, instead of "In the same place" we write a Latin variant:

Ibid. S.79. 

Ibid. P.79. (In slavic languages more often - S)

If the following reference belongs to the same author, as previous, - use instead of Russian variant "It" or "Same" - Latin: Idem. Zycie polityczne Prus Krolewskich u schylku ich zwiazku z Rzeczapospolita w XVIII wieku. Warszawa; Poznan; Torun, 1984. 

The Reference to magazine: Michalski J. Plan Czartoryskich naprawy Rzeczypospolitej//Kwartalnik Historyczny. 1955. ?4/5. S.31.

Marecki E. Ugody ksiecia Leszka Czarnego z biskupem Pawlem z Przemankowa//Studia Historyczne. 1986. R.29. S.17.

The Published sources:

Komisja Edukacji narodowej (Pisma Komisji i o Komisji). Wybor zrodel / Zeb. i opr. St. Tync. Wroclaw, 1954. 

Not published sources: 

Archiwum Glowne Akt Dawnych (dalej AGAD). Rkps 373/1. S.71; 

Archiwum Rodzinne Poniatowskich (dalej ARP). Rkps 374/1. S.121.  

Some other Polish archives and the accepted reductions:

Biblioteka Czartoryskich w Krakowie (dalej Czart.)

Archiwum Panstwowe w Poznaniu (APPoz.)

Archiwum Panstwowe w Lublinie (dalej APL)

Archiwum Glowne Akt Dawnych w Warszawie (AGAD)

Biblioteka Zakladu im. Ossolinskich we Wroclawiu (Oss.)



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