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« Councils at a writing of an essay, the report, theses.This pedagogical problem the Writing service »
07.01.2011

That it is necessary to know at a writing term papers (Methodical recommendations for students)

The technology of performance of term paper at the general course of physics is described. Requirements to work and system of its estimation are stated, the short characteristic of the basic parts is given. It is shown how to write term paper in the form of the scientific report (article). The purpose of recommendations to help students to perform work qualitatively and for short time. 

"The plan was, of course, magnificent very harmonous 

And idle time. 

Representations how to carry out it; "

Structure and volume of term paper 

The summary 

Introduction 

The theory 

Experiment 

Discussion of results 

Conclusions 

The conclusion 

The bibliographic list 

The appendix 1. System of an estimation of term paper 

The appendix 2. About style 

Samples of the bibliographic description 

1. STRUCTURE AND VOLUME COURSE 

"I do not imagine, as it is possible 

To be content with the knowledge received 

At second hand; though another's knowledge can 

Us to something to learn, it is wise you happen only 

Own wisdom "

Michel Montaigne 

Term paper is the independent research of the student issued in the form of the scientific report. Term paper is an obligatory part of the curriculum. The purpose of term paper: first, to give the chance to the student to carry out independent scientific research, to deepen knowledge at the general course of physics; secondly, to define ability of the student to carry out scientific research. The theme of term paper is desirable for connecting with the program of a studied course of physics. The theme is offered the student or the teacher. The best works participate in competition in the end of each semestre. At definition of prize-winning places the preference is given to works of a corresponding practical course of physics (the molecular physics, an electricity and magnetism, optics, the nuclear physics). Term paper contains following basic parts: introduction, the theory, experiment, results, discussion of results, conclusions, the conclusion, remarks, thanks, the list of the literature and the appendix. 

The summary in volume no more than 0,5 pages is located after the title page and precedes "Maintenance". 

The list of letter designations and reductions follows "Maintenance". Drawings settle down under the text. It is necessary to write work accurately; it is desirable to print. Rigid requirements to work volume are absent; however each of the listed parts should contain the information, sufficient for clear understanding of its being. 

If brevity - the girlfriend of wisdom, "Summary" - 

Place where it should be shown. 

The summary is a short characteristic of the maintenance of term paper. The summary contains answers to questions: "What object of research? What is investigated? What method of research? What range of changeable parametres? What it was possible to find out or establish? In what novelty of work? Whether the analysis of errors and what reasons of possible errors is made? Results can be useful to what fields of knowledge?". 

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3. INTRODUCTION 

"Sensation of secret - finest of accessible 

To us of experiences. This feeling costs at a cradle of true art and the present science ". 

The Nobel winner

In introduction first of all it is necessary to prove necessity of offered research; to explain your interest and value of the chosen scientific direction for the fundamental or applied physics. It is necessary to give answers to questions: "That is known about a problem? Who solved also what methods? What results have been received to you? Whether they are reliable? Clearly show, that actually you are going to investigate; allocate" the sector "in a problem; accurately formulate the purpose. Thus remember," that people understand any purpose differently, than the person, its specifying ". Show, with the help of what technique the problem will be solved. Shine strong and weaknesses of used methods, complexity and difficulties of measurements of physical sizes, possible errors. Do not forget, that in introduction it is necessary to convince the reader of importance of the undertaken experiment. In other words, here you should answer a question:" What for made the given experiment and what its purpose? " Introduction should wake interest to reading and if the reader has not fallen asleep, is your first success. 

4. THE THEORY 

"The idea was so simple, that could not 

Not to appear true ".

The Nobel winner

The theoretical part of work should show a complex of sights, representations and the ideas directed on interpretation, an explanation of the investigated phenomenon. The problem of a theoretical part - to understand in effect the chosen problem more deeply. This part shows level of understanding of an object of research, enters the reader into a circle of problems, gives clear representation about that, on what efforts will be directed at carrying out of experiment and why. Remember that experiment is carried out on the basis of the theory defining statement of problems and interpretation of its results. In the head "Discussion of results" you will address to hypotheses, physical models and representations, calculations or the known facts stated in a theoretical part. Probably, it will be your theory. " Be not afraid to enter into the contradiction with existing representations, - Nobel prize winner N.N.Semenov advised, - if only your ideas in accuracy corresponded to experience, this major compass of true "[1]. Therefore the material stated by you should be comparable to the received results, is checked up experimentally. Aspire to that your theoretical representations, descriptions were clear to the reader. It is known, that A.Ejnshtejn marked presence at P.Erenfesta" the extremely well developed ability to catch the being of theoretical concept and so to release the theory from its mathematical dress that the simple idea laying in its basis was shown with all clearness ". 

5. EXPERIMENT 

The theorist understand, but do not trust. 

The experimenter do not understand, but - trust.

The experimental part is the basic in term paper. In it experimental installation is in detail described, the special attention is given to those its elements which can influence results of measurements. If the equipment is not standard, it is necessary to result its scheme. Schemes promote clearness of a statement. However pay attention to accuracy at their graphic performance. 

In experiment (as a knowledge method) it is necessary to achieve controllable and operated conditions. Separately and carefully describe a measurement technique. Here it is necessary to state clearly idea of a method, to stop on measuring apparatuses and it is short - on possible errors. " When you can measure about what you speak, and can express it in numbers you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it when you cannot express it in numbers your knowledge will be a pity and unsatisfactory sort; it can represent the knowledge beginning, but in your thoughts you have hardly drawn near to that deserves the science name whichever there was an object of research ". These are words of J. Thomson. Therefore" To be learnt to measure correctly - one of the most important, but also it is the most difficult realizable stages of a science. Enough one false measurement to prevent opening of the law and, that is even worse, to lead to an establishment of the nonexistent law; the origin of the law on nonlimiting connections of hydrogen and the oxygen based on experimental errors in measurements ??????? "(S.I.Vavilov) was that, for example. Therefore pay attention to reliability of represented results. 

 

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In the section concerning carrying out of experience, well describe sequence of operations, ways and receptions which characterise technology of experiment. As it is possible answer questions more full: "As it has been made? How it was possible? What method receives result?" The detailed description, as a rule, speaks about attention of the author to the important trifles, about accuracy and conscientiousness of the researcher. The information on experience carrying out allows other researchers to reproduce it, when it is necessary to lean against your results to promote further. Besides, any physical experience if it is careful, has independent value "(academician S.I.Vavilov). 

Remember that experiment - expensive pleasure. Therefore, "if the good, checked up theory allows to calculate process, what for experiment? How it is possible to be proud of what experimental points each time lay down on a theoretical curve? Experiments are necessary there where the theory badly works also our knowledge are insufficient" (academician N.N.Janenko). 

6. RESULTS 

"Seven times measure - once cut off".

In this section the facts and only the facts are stated. They should be stated impartially. The presented result should be characterised full enough, have "the passport", i.e. conditions in which it is received. Do not neglect trifles. Describe in detail: that is noticed, on what have paid attention, that it seemed strange or surprising. It is not necessary to throw out the received dependence only because it will not be co-ordinated with your representations. We investigate the phenomena of the validity and our knowledge can be today incomplete. Your work now also is directed on reception, getting of this new knowledge. 

Often results of measurements are represented in the form of tables. These are primary, a specification. Tell, how much they are reproduced and specify an error of the measured sizes. It is our sacred duty. Address with them carefully; it you the extracted value. Probably, they should be used for calculation of more difficult dependence not only to you. Special attention - to schedules. In the name it is necessary to show, that is represented. Do not reduce its text. It should be full enough. Show the ready schedule to the colleague. Whether it will catch its essence? Whether it will be clear without the text? Whether will understand, what, actually, it is studied and in what conditions? Often schedules are more informative, than words. 

About drawings. They are obligatory at the description of experimental installation and its separate parts from the point of view of physics of process. For example, at studying of the expiration of gases through a nozzle it is important to know its geometry, and at research of speed of distribution of shock waves - the scheme of gauges of the basic measuring device. Shortly speaking, it is impossible to study well the phenomenon, without clear understanding the reader of "methodical subtleties". The error of the received results and possible errors should be described here in detail. Do not write type general phrases "an error of measurement of other pressure - 2 %". Tell is better, by what devices measured and as errors were defined. Try to answer a question: "What for the information on errors in my research is necessary?" Remember that the estimation of errors is necessary for extraction from a data set of the results closest to true in time to notice discrepancies and the committed errors, it is reasonable to organise measurements and correctly to establish accuracy of the received results. Probably, it is useful for you to address to corresponding work of a measuring practical work or the special literature [2,3,4]. 

7. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

"The scientist, you explain us a science but who will explain 

To us your explanation? "

It is the central, most important part of work. Here critically intelligent, processed information on the data received by you is stored. Their analysis and synthesis here should be carried out. 

First, it is necessary to allocate the main, basic result. Probably, it is the unique schedule, the unique reliably measured size one or several photos - it is unimportant. Show value of the extracted information and the obtained data are how much steady against changes of conditions, accurately define area of parametres of environment where data are true. 

Secondly, it is necessary to compare the received results with stated in a theoretical part. If your results correspond to the known, reliable scientific fact, to you has carried, at you a holiday. If certain sizes coincide with tabular at least in any range of conditions, you are a good fellow. It means, that you have risen on shoulders of giants and they help to find confidence when your optimism is exhausted. 

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Thirdly, pay attention to the results accompanying the core. For example, you measure limiting power loadings on a material before destruction, and have noticed radiation. Describe the observable phenomenon and show, in what conditions, at what loadings it observed. Probably, this part of research becomes the basic in future your work. Here note only the found out effect. Move ahead to the purpose. 

Discussion of results should be interconnected with the work name. The reader should see, how you, arguing, investigate that is reflected in the name. The problem of this part of work - to understand, explain the mechanism of studied process, to find the reason of the observable phenomenon. First of all, discuss result, using known physical models of other authors. Notice that gives in to an explanation and that is not entered in frameworks of theories known to you. Place on it emphasis, will direct attention of the reader. Accurately formulate that cannot explain old theories. Think up the beautiful interpretation, clearly state hypotheses, show, how it is possible to treat new result. Open the talent. 

8. CONCLUSIONS 

"If in them it be no point, - the King, - that has told 

It, know, facilitates business,

For then also sense to search it is not necessary ".

Unlike the summary where value and applicability made is marked, in conclusions it is necessary to note a being of the made. Pay attention: the table of contents shows than were engaged, the summary - that is made also value of work, and conclusions list, that is established. Therefore these parts do not repeat, and supplement each other, facilitating the reader orientation in search of the necessary information and an assessment of works. Conclusions are well characterised by B.Vejbergom: "It - as though concentration and without that solution close to a saturation, and allocation from the received agglomerate of crystals of the largest and its valuable copies" [5]. Experts often speak: "the dry rest". 

9. THE CONCLUSION 

"The conclusion is the introduction written in the end".

This part reflects degree of perspectivity of the carried out research, helps to understand value of the chosen problem. In the conclusion you state own estimation to work and the opinion on inexpediency of carrying out of the further works if your arguments are convincing enough has the right to express. Further other researchers (students) can orient is better in a theme choice. 

Show, that and useful development of the given theme can give the new. Tell about new, original statements of experiments. Do not worry, that your ideas "will departure". First, having described them, you have authorship. Secondly, if ideas joint, i.e. were born in discussions with someone, specify potential co-authors, and it will strengthen your positions. Thirdly, give ideas is a true pleasure. 

"The first step to successful career is 

Objective self-estimation " 

Remarks reflect the critical relation of the author to work in whole (so and to themselves too). This part allows the reader to understand, how work has been organised, that it stimulated and that braked; what its block has appeared the most difficult and why; that it was necessary to do more assiduously and that followed avoid; on what a great lot of time and has left on what it has not sufficed. 

Tell, for what you regret. Perhaps, the problem is difficult or easy? Whether It was possible to receive clear representation about the purpose of work and requirements to it in the way beginning; also what stirred? Believe, that your work will read, results will use. Therefore stated in "Remarks" - is experience of carrying out of work. 

11. THANKS 

"For those who did not stir!"

"Thanks" - a delicate part of work. Nobody can force to thank you. It is difficult to give advice on this theme. Everyone chooses the way, style or words. It is a culture question. However we will tell, in what cases researchers allocate the separate paragraph for this purpose: 

- The research theme is offered; 

- Discussion of a choice of a theme; 

- Discussion of a choice of the scheme of experimental installation; 

- Granting of the experimental equipment, the help in its installation; 

- Discussion of methods of research; 

- The help at carrying out of experiences; 

- Research of a part of samples or special additional researches; 

- Discussion of results; 

- The help in working out of models of physics of process or their discussion; 

- The help in a work writing; 

- Discussion of work or the recommendation about its improvement; 

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- Encouragement; 

- Other reasons. 

Certainly, it is a question of the creative contribution to work. 

Let's notice, that usually (always) the manuscript text allow to see what names are brought in this section. Whether your colleagues, it still a question will be agree with it. They understand, that bear responsibility for work. If divide the point of view of the author, are happy with work, as a rule, aspire to help. 

To thank is to help itself. 

12. THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC LIST

When it a little - it is bad; when than it much - is even worse ". 

"The bibliographic list" settles down in the end of work and serves as its important addition. It can be compared to root system against which your work leans. We hope, that the reader will find a lot of interesting and useful in quoted articles and books. 

If used someone's information, necessarily refer. There are cases when it is necessary to put into operation the whole blocks, text pages - refer. Tell, that the case in point is well shined, opened or described at the author. Necessarily specify source pages since there are random errors, and them to define easier when there is an exact address. Do not include in the list works which you did not use and would like to include only from "importance" reasons. 

If result the oral information, for example, someone's opinion or councils, refer. 

The volume and quality of the used literature shows, how much the author owns the basic, necessary and modern information. The expert after reading of the summary and conclusions usually gets acquainted with the list of the literature and at once sees, what place is occupied with work in an information stream. It is possible to receive good results, having spent a lot of time and not to know, that these results have become outdated. And it does not please. 

Pay attention to how the bibliographic list is issued. As the sample it is possible to use the bibliographic list in the given methodical recommendations. 

13. THE APPENDIX 1 

"Talents are true for criticism are not angry: 

Damages them it cannot beauty, 

One counterfeit flowers 

Of rain are afraid! " 

System of an estimation of term paper. 

It is useful and to know interestingly how your work will be estimated. Naturally, these principles are better for knowing before performance "course". Besides, identical (standard) requirements to students give the chance to the teacher to be more objective. 

First of all it is desirable to follow the recommendations stated in given recommendations. Certainly, there can be deviations (to the best), but is advised to keep structure of work for simplification of its understanding. The teacher answers and to such questions interest: 

How much a vital topic? 

Whether there is a novelty? 

In what originality? (Whether there is a highlight?) 

Whether the purpose or work is reached not finished? 

What reliability of the received results? 

Whether the theme is offered by the student? 

Whether the theme is borrowed and whether the source is known? 

What personal contribution of the author? 

Whether work is well issued?

Especially it is necessary to stop on time of the statement of a theme. The best variant when it is defined by the student in advance - in the beginning a semestre. Cases when students offer c????????????? the thought over experiments much earlier are known. There is a possibility to be prepared theoretically, and there is time for creation of experimental installation. Do not postpone a theme choice on "then". Most likely, really, "all is formed", but how? After all you wish to make interesting, "excellent" work, and for this purpose, as a rule, time is necessary. 

14. THE APPENDIX 2 

"Do not write short. It testifies or 

About the big talent, or about 

Scarcity of mind. Neither that, nor another 

Opponents will not forgive to you ".

"Physicists continue to joke"

About style. 

"Written processing of scientific researches mostly happens difficult business; to me, at least, it cost great work. Many departments of my articles I copy on four, on six times, in every possible way changing the schedule whole, and only then remained happy. But in such careful editing there is a great advantage for the author. (...). I never considered the research finished while it did not lay before me in a written statement, in a full kind". These are G.Gelmgoltsa's words. Any serious researcher does not write "rashly". Do not trust those who says, that "has straight off written well" and be not upset when, it is impossible to you. Means, you see, that something not how it would be desirable, therefore you have chances to write better. And here that C.Darvin writes: " In former time I had a habit to consider each phrase before to write down it, but here some years as I have come to conclusion that leaves less time if as soon as possible the most awful handwriting and half reducing a word to outline the whole pages, and then to consider and correct. The phrases outlined thus, often appear better what I could write, preliminary having considered them "." It is good to write Ability it is not necessary to separate from ability well to make experiments. And in that and the friend there is a charm ", - in the known book" the Practical physics "." Try to express intelligibly the thoughts and to expose them in the most correct light, working it is as much as possible to leaving their dark and confused, and to make clear and clear ", - advises S.Servantes. And nevertheless the main thing in a written statement of term paper - that you have understood. It is difficult, but is possible. One of widely used ways: write the text and put aside, for a while," under cloth "; through a week read. Try to understand a work essence put itself to the place of the reader who sees work for the first time. Pay attention to logicality of a statement of the material presented by you, on communication between sections and work parts. In each paragraph the key thought should be visible. Conclusions are necessary in each section or the big paragraph. Their accurate formulation should exclude double interpretation of your thoughts and results. It helps. Here pertinently to give O.Zamulina's of word - the economist from college Grinnell, the USA:" What for the physicist who can open something great is necessary, but it cannot inform to people? "Success to you and good luck. 



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