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« The Internet is even more often used by students for a writing of scientific works essaysHow to write the writing service, the essay, article »
07.01.2011

How to write research and term paper.

According to Position about the organisation of educational process in higher educational institutions of Ukraine, term paper is carried out for the purpose of fastening, deepening and generalisation of the knowledge received by students during training, and their application to the complex decision of a concrete professional problem.

The subjects of term papers can answer problems of a subject matter and to be closely connected with practical questions of a concrete speciality. It affirms on faculty meeting. Performance of term papers is defined by the schedule.

Term paper helps the student to systematise the received theoretical knowledge on studied discipline, and to the teacher to check up quality of this knowledge.

Research paper is a qualifying uchebno-scientific research of the student which is carried out at the training closing stage in a higher educational institution.

Research paper has complex character and is connected with use of the knowledge got by the student, skills and abilities on special disciplines. It provides ordering, fastening, expansion of theoretical and practical knowledge on specialities and their application at the decision of concrete scientific, industrial and other problems.

Such basic demands are made to research papers:

- A theme urgency, conformity to its modern condition of certain area of a science and to prospects of development of corresponding sphere;

- Studying and the critical analysis monographic and periodicals on a theme;

- Studying and the characteristic of history of an investigated problem and its modern condition, and also the best practices of work in corresponding area;

- The accurate characteristic of a subject, the purpose and research receptions, the description and the analysis of the researches spent by the author, experiments;

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- Generalisation of results, their substantiation, conclusions and practical recommendations.

To protection of research papers students who have fulfilled all requirements of the curriculum are supposed, have passed an industrial practice (hospital), have given when due hereunder research paper and positive responses on it. 

Course and research paper as independent uchebno-scientific research can reveal level of general scientific and special preparation of the student, its ability to apply the received knowledge for the decision of concrete problems, propensity to the analysis and independent generalisation of a material on a research theme.

Usually the option of a theme of course and research paper from among defined by final chairs of an educational institution is given to the student. Sometimes it is authorised to offer the theme with a substantiation of its working out.

The management of term and research papers is carried out by teachers. The organisation and the control over process of preparation and protection of term and research papers are assigned on managing chairs.

The subjects of term and research papers are annually corrected taking into account the experience got on chairs, wishes of experts, recommendations of the State examination board.

Irrespective of the chosen theme, the structure of course (degree) work can be following: the title page; the maintenance; introduction; some heads, subparagraphs which open the theory of a question and experience of practical work; conclusions; the list of the used literature; appendices (if necessary).

It is rational to organise work on course or research paper, correctly to distribute time, adequately to develop the chosen theme the following algorithm of a writing of such works will help:

- A theme choice;

- Search and literature selection in a theme, its studying;

- Preliminary plan drawing up, its coordination with the head;

- A writing of heads and subparagraphs;

- A formulation of conclusions and recommendations, an introduction writing;

- Registration of the list of the used sources and appendices.

- Literary and technical registration of work, correction of errors;

- Reviewing, preparation for protection and protection of research paper, an academic year project.

Performance of course and research paper will be organised according to the schedule confirmed by chair and dean's office.

The preparatory stage of work on research and erm paper begins with a choice of a theme, its judgement and a substantiation. From the list that, offered by chair, the student chooses that which most is equitable to its interests.

 

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At finding-out of object, a subject and a research objective it is necessary to consider, that between them and a theme of course or research paper there are system logic communications. Object of research is all set of relations of various aspects of the theory and practice of a science which is a source of the necessary information. The object of research is only those essential communications which are subject to direct studying in the given work, are the main things defining for concrete research. Thus, the object of research happens already object of research.

Defining object, it is necessary to find the answer to a question: what is considered? At the same time the subject defines aspect of studying, gives representations about the maintenance of object of research, about what new relations, properties, aspects and object functions reveal. In other words, as object that is investigated acts. And a subject - that in this object has a scientific explanation.

Performance of research problems is impossible without acquaintance with the basic references on a theme of course or research paper. For the purpose of their fuller search it is necessary to use different sources: catalogues and card files of chairs and libraries of a higher educational institution, and also leading scientific libraries, bibliographic indexes, footnotes and references in textbooks, monographies, dictionaries, etc., indexes of the maintenance of annual complete sets of special periodicals, electronic catalogues of libraries, etc.

During search of references it is necessary to find out a condition of a level of scrutiny of the chosen theme a modern science more particularly and more precisely to define directions and the basic sections of the research.

The second stage begins with literature studying on a theme of the degree project or term paper.

Reading the edition, it is necessary to watch closely a course of author's thought, to be able to distinguish the main positions from proofs and an illustrative material. Often articles from scientific collections are difficult for perception, therefore it is necessary to read them some times, trying to allocate the main idea and arguments. 

Than the circle of sources which the student used will be wider and more various, the theoretical that practical importance of its research will be especially essential.

Correct and logic structure of degree or term paper - the keystone to success of disclosing of a theme. Process of specification of structure uneasy also can last throughout all work on research. It is necessary to show the work preliminary plan to the supervisor of studies as can happen so that it will be necessary to copy the work text.

Preparing for a statement of the text of course or research paper, expediently once again attentively to read its name containing a problem which should be opened. The analysed and systematised material is stated according to the maintenance in the form of separate heads and subparagraphs. Each chapter takes up an independent question, and the subparagraph (paragraph) - a separate part of this question.

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The theme should be opened without the admission of logic links, therefore, starting to work over the head, it is necessary to note its main idea, and also theses of each subparagraph. It is necessary to confirm theses with the facts and opinions of various authors, results of questioning and experiment, the analysis of concrete practical experience. 

At the final stage the writing the student of introduction and conclusions to research paper, term paper, registration of the list of the literature and appendices, text editing, its completion taking into account remarks of the supervisor of studies, preparation of work for protection is supposed.

It is expedient to write introduction after the basic part of course or research paper will be written. In introduction the theme urgency, its practical importance is proved; the object, a subject, the purpose and the research problem are defined; methods with which help it was spent are considered; the work structure, its basic maintenance reveals. 

Introduction part is the literature review on a research theme in which include the most valuable, actual works. To finish the review it is necessary a short conclusion about illumination degree in the literature of the basic aspects of a theme.

Logic end of research and erm paper are conclusions. Their main purpose - results of the spent work. It is better to do conclusions in the form of separate laconic offers, methodical recommendations. It is very important, that they answered tasks in view. In conclusions it is necessary to specify not only that positive, that it was possible to find out as a result of theme studying, but also lacks and problems of practical character, and also concrete recommendations concerning their elimination.

The list of the used literature reflects volume of the used sources and degree of a level of scrutiny of an investigated theme, is the card of the author of work, its professional person, testifies to level of mastering by skills of work with the scientific literature. The list should contain the bibliographic description of the sources used by the student in an operating time over a theme. Making it, it is necessary to adhere to state standard requirements. Everyone bibliographic record should be begun with a new paragraph, the literature it is necessary to have in alphabetic order authors and names of works, at first editions in an Ukrainian language and Russian languages, then on foreign (in some high schools the list number according to an order of references in the text). Bibliographic records in the list should have serial numbering. In the work text it is necessary to give in square brackets of the reference to list numbers. If it is necessary to specify page number, it put through a comma after edition number.

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Finishing a writing of course and research paper, it is necessary to systematise an illustrative material. Illustrations can be placed in the text but if they are bulky or themes only indirectly concern - they should be made out in the form of appendices. The same is fair and for tables. All appendices should have serial numbering and names which answer their maintenance. Numbering of sheets with appendices continues the general numbering of pages of the basic text of work.

The volume of term paper is defined in each high school and in each subject separately, however usually it makes 25-40 pages; volume of research paper in the majority of high schools - 60-100 pages.

In degree and course robots it is necessary to aspire to adhere to the accepted terminology, designations, conditional reductions and symbols, it is not recommended to use expressions-stamps, to conduct a statement from the first person: "I observed", "I consider", "it seems to me", "in my opinion". It is necessary to avoid in the text of frequent repetitions of words or word-combinations.

At a mention in the text of surnames (scientists-researchers, experts) the initials, as a rule, are put before a surname (V.M.Petrov, instead of Petrov V. M as it is accepted in literature lists).

It is necessary to notice, that a number of supervisors of studies considers as norm if course, and in particular research paper is processed by the student some times. Even if work is written very well, some teachers all one will want to correct something in it. In particular gets to those students who cannot explain the position to the head, are not capable to comment on with own hand written text, and on all remarks only nod a head, having looked down.

To the formulation of headings of heads and subparagraphs of course and research paper such basic demands are made: clearness and a syntactic variety in construction of offers with prevalence of the simple; consecutive and exact display of internal logic of the maintenance of work.

Heads and subparagraphs can be numbered in the Arabian figures (in a number of high schools of the head it is accepted to number in Latin figures). Subparagraphs number separately in each chapter. Serial numbers of heads and subparagraphs write in one line with heading, and at alignment on the centre in the end the point is not put.

Work pages should have the fields which size is underlined in methodical recommendations of each high school. Most often there are such requirements: the left field - 30 mm, from above and from below - 20-25 mm, the right field - 10 mm. 

All pages of work are numbered from title to last without admissions or alphabetic additions. The first page considers the title page, on it figure 1 is not put, the second is considered the maintenance, on it figure 2 also is not put, on the following page figure 3 and according to order is put down further.

Desearch and erm paper begins with the title page. On it the ministry, the name of institute (university) in which course or research paper was carried out, the chair name on which it it was carried out, the full name of a theme of work, a surname and the initials of the student-diplomnika, a course, group, faculty where he studies, a surname, the initials, an academic status of the supervisor of studies, year and a place of performance of work are specified.

On the following page the maintenance with a designation of numbers of pages takes places. All heads and subparagraphs who are in the plan, should be allocated in the text by headings and subtitles.



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