As a rule, the essay consists of three parts is an introduction, the basic part and the conclusion. As the essay should contain in the structure the maintenance and the list of used sources and the literature. An unessential element is the appendix.
At an essay writing before the student there are following problems:
1. To understand a theme, that is to understand its sense and to define the basic directions of its studying.
2. To pick up the list of sources and the literature on which base will be theme studying is under construction.
3. To make the short essay of studied sources and the literature (it is possible to make a x-copy and to note the basic moments).
4. To reveal a problem of a considered theme. To make the work plan, that is to define the maintenance of the basic paragraphs in the basic part of work (usually two - four paragraphs happens enough). To pick up a material on the basis of the made essays, to group a draught variant of work.
5. To prepare work introduction in which it is necessary to note a theme urgency, a problem, the purpose and problems. The text of introduction can be constructed on a miscellaneous, depending on a theme, studied discipline and the available student of a material.
So, introduction can be constructed «from itself», that is by a principle «I had been studied that …». Introduction can have istoriko-descriptive character, that is be considered a question of occurrence and dynamics of events on which basis the urgency of a theme of research reveals. The review of bibliographic base of research also can be made, discussion on a studied theme, or any one question is spent, with instructions of opinions of the authors, used sources - in this case the urgency will be caused by argumentativeness of judgements in a subject and object of research. Variants set, therefore possibilities of the student in a choice of style of a writing of introduction are not limited.
6. On the basis of the studied material the conclusion which is a conclusion on the done work is made. In the conclusion the decision of the designated problem should be noted and answers to all questions put in introduction (questions considered in work are the purpose and problems) are given.
7. The essay text spelling and syntactic errors are carefully checked, eliminated, semantic discrepancies are corrected, footnotes on sources and the used literature are placed.
For fastening stated above a material, we will consider process of a writing of the essay on a concrete example.
One of obligatory disciplines in any educational institution is the fatherland history. And the most "hackneyed" theme in this subject: «Peter the Great Reform». Variations it is offered themes there can be a set, but will adhere to the offered formulation.
So, for theme explanation it is possible to take any textbook on fatherland history, for example, «History of the Russian state. / under the editorship of S.M.Munchaeva - 2001» - me it very much to like the logic of a statement or «to Orlov A.S., Georgiev V. A. History of Russia. - the prospectus, 2003» which is the most widespread educational edition on fatherland history, or «History of Russia. / under the editorship of M.N.Zueva and A.A.Chernobaeva.-: the Higher school, 2003» which is the manual for technical colleges (which application is not so welcomed in liberal arts colleges), but, in my opinion, it it is very good in the short form shines the basic events of our history. These and other textbooks can be used as the literature and to include in the list of used sources and the literature.
Having read the head of the textbook about Peter I activity, by the way it was the first Russian Emperor (in second half XVII - beginning ?VIII of centuries), it is possible to find out, that Peter I during the board has spent a number of the reforms which have essentially affected a course of the Russian history: administrative, military, judicial, cultural, etc. - the first possible direction of studying of a theme (by kinds of reforms), also realisation of reforms has been connected with certain internal and foreign policy processes - the second direction of studying of a theme (a binding of spent reforms to historical events and considerations in chronological sequence), etc.
At selection of sources and literatures first of all it is necessary to take advantage the history of fatherland offered by the teacher of the textbook of methodics (if that is available). As a rule, in a subject it is made methodical recommendations, in which to contain plans of seminar employment (are often duplicated with themes of essays and examinations), the plan of seminar employment (it is possible to use as the essay plan), the list of the obligatory and additional literature. Just this list also should be used as sources for an essay writing. Certainly, it is possible to take 1-2 sources from offered and to write the essay, and the others is simple so to enter in the list of the used sources and the literature but so to do does not follow for the several reasons: first, all literature in such methodical recommendations is written down in the short form (mismatches standards of registration of sources and literatures); secondly, some sources can and not to be in libraries; Thirdly, more objectively to consider an essay theme, it is necessary to see 4-5 sources at least. The poet not to draw to itself the attention of the teacher as to the careless student, it is necessary to see all offered sources and the literature in the original or at least on a library card file, correctly to issue them for drawing up of the bibliographic list, those sources which you have found, it is not necessary to include in the list.
Looking through the sources offered by the teacher, it is necessary to pay attention to the lists of the literature containing as a rule either in the end of the book, or after each chapter. These lists as can be used at selection of base for the essay.
As in quality of "a source of sources» it is possible to use various dictionaries and encyclopaedias. For example, if to take Big Soviet Encyclopedia (by the way, it is as in a printing variant - 30 volumes, and in electronic form - only 3 disks) and to open article about Peter I Velikom it is possible to see the following:Letters and papers of emperor Peter the Great. 1-11,1887-1964; Voskresensky, Peter I acts., 1945.
The resulted sources need to be used with care as their big part, most likely, will be inaccessible to mass using. Thus it is not necessary to take a great interest and abuse the list of sources and literatures for the essay. So in most cases there are enough 5-10 sources, and even it is less. In any case all requirements to the essay learn from the teacher.
Looking through the literature it is necessary to do essays, or x-copies of successful articles and heads of textbooks - from these fragments and the essay will "gather".
Having understood a theme and having chosen a direction of its studying, it is necessary to define a problem in an investigated question. So a research problem on a theme «Peter the Great Reform», it is possible to offer the following:
The majority of scientific works about Russia in the first quarter of XVIII century is allocated with reforms in administrative, military, church and cultural spheres. Similar division has that advantage that allows is volume enough to see changes in each of the named spheres, but link between Peter's separate actions, on the other hand, is broken, and the overall picture as it seems to me, is deformed, and in it there is a logic brought by research.
Further the work plan on a research theme, for example is made:
§ 1. The beginning of Petrovsky transformations
1.1 First attempts of europeanization of Russia
1.2 Reforms of a control system by cities
1.3 Reform of a control system by cities
1.4 Transformations to armies
§ 2. Formation of Russian empire
2.1 Provincial reform
2.2 Creation of the senate
2.3 Struggle against embezzlers of public funds
§ 3. Definitive formation of empire - reforms of the central management
3.1 Formation of joint central management
3.2 Assignment to Peter I of a title of the Emperor
3.3 Formation bureaucratic the device
The list of sources and the used literature
Thus allocation in paragraphs of subparagraphs - absolutely unessential criterion. I have allocated subparagraphs that it was visible, as it is possible to approach to a standard theme of the essay is non-standard. Naturally the plan is made on the basis of a material available for you. There is no sense to allocate any paragraph if for it the material is not present or there are no more than 1-2 paragraphs.
Now on the basis of available essays (x-copies) we fill with the maintenance the made plan - by means of the computer and the scanner it is very easy for making. We place references to the used literature. References are placed in the form of footnotes (as it becomes, I will not describe as the information on it is practically in any methodical recommendations). Is better places of references to sources and the literature on which there will be a reference, to mark during a work writing so it will be then easy to get confused. After the draught variant of the text will be ready, we leave it while as it is.
Has come to write time introduction to work. Style of a writing of introduction it has been mentioned above. Here a vivid example of a writing of introduction for the essay «from itself»:
The radical transformations which have been carried out by Peter the Great, were the response to the universal internal crisis which has comprehended Russian state in second half XVII centuries. From this point of view it is senseless to argue, are necessary or Russia Peter's reforms were not necessary: they contained that unique medicine which only and could rescue it. Apparently, there are bases to consider, that modernisation, or, in other words, europeanization of political, social and economic institutes of the country was this medicine.
Now there is a set of sights at Peter and its epoch. Perhaps, any person in domestic history did not cause so much heated arguments.
The majority of scientific works about Russia in the first quarter of XVIII century is allocated with reforms in administrative, military, church and cultural spheres. Similar division has that advantage that allows is volume enough to see changes in each of the named spheres, but link between Peter's separate actions, on the other hand, is broken, and the overall picture as it seems to me, is deformed, and in it there is a logic brought by research that defines a problem of research of the offered theme.
Because of and incompleteness of a question on a life and Peter I activity consideration of its transformations as basic question of the essay is actual as it is necessary to approach to its permission with new more sober estimation. Plus to everything, in the course of carrying out of reforms in Russia has developed an original officialdom of government which has played huge value in the future history of Russia.
In the work I will try to track history of Petrovsky reforms in their development, that as a result will allow to draw high-grade conclusions on the spent transformations.
The work purpose is consideration of internal political transformations of Peter I in chronological sequence and an estimation of their value.
For the object in view decision it is necessary to consider a number of accompanying problems:
1. Consideration of transformations of Peter I at the board initial stage.
2. Consideration of reforms of the period of origin of Russian empire - in the conditions of war.
3. Formation of the Russian empire, reforming of management personnel and bureaucracy folding.
Apparently from the offered example, the problem revealed by us for research has occupied the place of honour in introduction. As a rule the problem defines also a theme urgency. The work purpose is defined proceeding from a direction of research and is the basic question on which it is necessary to receive the answer and to draw conclusions in the conclusion. That is, the problem and a research objective should be stretched through all work as a thin thread - unostentatiously, but accurately to keep logic and an order of a statement of a material.
After introduction preparation it is necessary to edit the work text, beginning from typing errors and finishing stylistic errors. The work text should be written in one style, with logic transitions between paragraphs and subparagraphs. After each paragraph it is possible to draw conclusions are, first, will delight your teacher, and, secondly, becomes base for preparation of the conclusion for work.
Now time for definitive arrangement and updating of references to sources and the used literature has come.
On the basis of conclusions under paragraphs the conclusion according to problems of work and a final phrase in the end of the conclusion, the done work being a result and answering a question defined by the purpose of work is made.
Now it is necessary to unpack work, do not forget to make necessarily the title page for work - after all this your person! Accurately sew work by means of a puncher and a plastic folder. Work is ready - it is possible to hand over!